Articles | Volume 4, issue 3
Original research article
13 Sep 2018
Original research article | 13 Sep 2018
Continental soil drivers of ammonium and nitrate in Australia
Juhwan Lee et al.
No articles found.
Zefang Shen, Haylee D'Agui, Lewis Walden, Mingxi Zhang, Tsoek Man Yiu, Kingsley Dixon, Paul Nevill, Adam Cross, Mohana Matangulu, Yang Hu, and Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel
SOIL, 8, 467–486,Short summary
We compared miniaturised visible and near-infrared spectrometers to a portable visible–near-infrared instrument, which is more expensive. Statistical and machine learning algorithms were used to model 29 key soil health indicators. Accuracy of the miniaturised spectrometers was comparable to the portable system. Soil spectroscopy with these tiny sensors is cost-effective and could diagnose soil health, help monitor soil rehabilitation, and deliver positive environmental and economic outcomes.
Yuanyuan Yang, Zefang Shen, Andrew Bissett, and Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel
SOIL, 8, 223–235,Short summary
We present a new method to estimate the relative abundance of the dominant phyla and diversity of fungi in Australian soil. It uses state-of-the-art machine learning with publicly available data on soil and environmental proxies for edaphic, climatic, biotic and topographic factors, and visible–near infrared wavelengths. The estimates could serve to supplement the more expensive molecular approaches towards a better understanding of soil fungal abundance and diversity in agronomy and ecology.
Juhwan Lee, Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel, Mingxi Zhang, Zhongkui Luo, and Ying-Ping Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 5185–5202,Short summary
We performed Roth C simulations across Australia and assessed the response of soil carbon to changing inputs and future climate change using a consistent modelling framework. Site-specific initialisation of the C pools with measurements of the C fractions is essential for accurate simulations of soil organic C stocks and composition at a large scale. With further warming, Australian soils will become more vulnerable to C loss: natural environments > native grazing > cropping > modified grazing.
Philipp Baumann, Anatol Helfenstein, Andreas Gubler, Armin Keller, Reto Giulio Meuli, Daniel Wächter, Juhwan Lee, Raphael Viscarra Rossel, and Johan Six
SOIL, 7, 525–546,Short summary
We developed the Swiss mid-infrared spectral library and a statistical model collection across 4374 soil samples with reference measurements of 16 properties. Our library incorporates soil from 1094 grid locations and 71 long-term monitoring sites. This work confirms once again that nationwide spectral libraries with diverse soils can reliably feed information to a fast chemical diagnosis. Our data-driven reduction of the library has the potential to accurately monitor carbon at the plot scale.
Anatol Helfenstein, Philipp Baumann, Raphael Viscarra Rossel, Andreas Gubler, Stefan Oechslin, and Johan Six
SOIL, 7, 193–215,Short summary
In this study, we show that a soil spectral library (SSL) can be used to predict soil carbon at new and very different locations. The importance of this finding is that it requires less time-consuming lab work than calibrating a new model for every local application, while still remaining similar to or more accurate than local models. Furthermore, we show that this method even works for predicting (drained) peat soils, using a SSL with mostly mineral soils containing much less soil carbon.
Zhongkui Luo, Raphael A. Viscarra-Rossel, and Tian Qian
Biogeosciences, 18, 2063–2073,Short summary
Using the data from 141 584 whole-soil profiles across the globe, we disentangled the relative importance of biotic, climatic and edaphic variables in controlling global SOC stocks. The results suggested that soil properties and climate contributed similarly to the explained global variance of SOC in four sequential soil layers down to 2 m. However, the most important individual controls are consistently soil-related, challenging current climate-driven framework of SOC dynamics.
Andre Carnieletto Dotto, Jose A. M. Demattê, Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel, and Rodnei Rizzo
SOIL, 6, 163–177,Short summary
The objective of this study was to develop a soil grouping system based on spectral, climate, and terrain variables with the aim of developing a quantitative way to classify soils. To derive the new system, we applied the above-mentioned variables using cluster analysis and defined eight groups or "soil environment groupings" (SEGs). The SEG system facilitated the identification of groups with similar characteristics using not only soil but also environmental variables for their distinction.
Jacqueline R. England and Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel
SOIL, 4, 101–122,Short summary
Proximal sensing can be used for soil C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting. This is particularly important if there are financial incentives for landholders to adopt practices to sequester C. We review sensing for C accounting and discuss the requirements for the development of new soil C accounting methods based on sensing, including requirements for reporting, auditing and verification.
V. Haverd, M. R. Raupach, P. R. Briggs, J. G. Canadell, P. Isaac, C. Pickett-Heaps, S. H. Roxburgh, E. van Gorsel, R. A. Viscarra Rossel, and Z. Wang
Biogeosciences, 10, 2011–2040,
Related subject area
Soils and biogeochemical cyclingLand use impact on carbon mineralization in well aerated soils is mainly explained by variations of particulate organic matter rather than of soil structureInclusion of biochar in a C dynamics model based on observations from an 8-year field experimentDynamics of soil aggregate-related stoichiometric characteristics with tea-planting age and soil depth in the southern Guangxi of ChinaSynergy between compost and cover crops in a Mediterranean row crop system leads to increased subsoil carbon storagePhosphorus dynamics during early soil development in a cold desert: insights from oxygen isotopes in phosphateTransformation of n-alkanes from plant to soil: a reviewEffects of returning corn straw and fermented corn straw to fields on the soil organic carbon pools and humus compositionHeterotrophic soil respiration and carbon cycling in geochemically distinct African tropical forest soilsSoil organic carbon mobility in equatorial podzols: soil column experimentsMicrobial activity responses to water stress in agricultural soils from simple and complex crop rotationsThe role of geochemistry in organic carbon stabilization against microbial decomposition in tropical rainforest soilsGeogenic organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and its contribution to total soil carbonAluminous clay and pedogenic Fe oxides modulate aggregation and related carbon contents in soils of the humid tropicsContinental-scale controls on soil organic carbon across sub-Saharan AfricaModelling of long-term Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb dynamics from soils fertilised with organic amendmentsStable isotope signatures of soil nitrogen on an environmental–geomorphic gradient within the Congo BasinIron and aluminum association with microbially processed organic matter via meso-density aggregate formation across soils: organo-metallic glue hypothesisLand-use perturbations in ley grassland decouple the degradation of ancient soil organic matter from the storage of newly derived carbon inputsSwitch of fungal to bacterial degradation in natural, drained and rewetted oligotrophic peatlands reflected in δ15N and fatty acid compositionCatchment export of base cations: improved mineral dissolution kinetics influence the role of water transit timeBoreal-forest soil chemistry drives soil organic carbon bioreactivity along a 314-year fire chronosequenceRamped thermal analysis for isolating biologically meaningful soil organic matter fractions with distinct residence timesVariations in soil chemical and physical properties explain basin-wide Amazon forest soil carbon concentrationsLithology- and climate-controlled soil aggregate-size distribution and organic carbon stability in the Peruvian AndesEvaluating the effects of soil erosion and productivity decline on soil carbon dynamics using a model-based approachBase cations in the soil bank: non-exchangeable pools may sustain centuries of net loss to forestry and leachingShort-range-order minerals as powerful factors explaining deep soil organic carbon stock distribution: the case of a coffee agroforestry plantation on Andosols in Costa RicaA new look at an old concept: using 15N2O isotopomers to understand the relationship between soil moisture and N2O production pathwaysAssessing the impact of acid rain and forest harvest intensity with the HD-MINTEQ model – soil chemistry of three Swedish conifer sites from 1880 to 2080Dynamic modelling of weathering rates – the benefit over steady-state modellingAluminium and base cation chemistry in dynamic acidification models – need for a reappraisal?Challenges of soil carbon sequestration in the NENA regionComment on “Soil organic stocks are systematically overestimated by misuse of the parameters bulk density and rock fragment content” by Poeplau et al. (2017)Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany – Spatial variability and driving factorsPotential short-term losses of N2O and N2 from high concentrations of biogas digestate in arable soilsA deeper look at the relationship between root carbon pools and the vertical distribution of the soil carbon poolNitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soilsProcess-oriented modelling to identify main drivers of erosion-induced carbon fluxesThermal alteration of soil organic matter properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest firesTimescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogiesGreater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivityThree-dimensional soil organic matter distribution, accessibility and microbial respiration in macroaggregates using osmium staining and synchrotron X-ray computed tomographyLong-term elevation of temperature affects organic N turnover and associated N2O emissions in a permanent grassland soilSoil fauna: key to new carbon modelsTillage-induced short-term soil organic matter turnover and respirationSimultaneous quantification of depolymerization and mineralization rates by a novel 15N tracing modelSoil CO2 efflux in an old-growth southern conifer forest (Agathis australis) – magnitude, components and controlsThermal alteration of soil physico-chemical properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest firesGone or just out of sight? The apparent disappearance of aromatic litter components in soilsSoil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long term
Steffen Schlüter, Tim Roussety, Lena Rohe, Vusal Guliyev, Evgenia Blagodatskaya, and Thomas Reitz
SOIL, 8, 253–267,Short summary
We combined microstructure analysis via X-ray CT with carbon mineralization analysis via respirometry of intact soil cores from different land uses. We found that the amount of particulate organic matter (POM) exerted a dominant control on carbon mineralization in well-aerated topsoils, whereas soil moisture and macroporosity did not play role. This is because carbon mineralization mainly occurs in microbial hotspots around degrading POM, where it is decoupled from conditions of the bulk soil.
Roberta Pulcher, Enrico Balugani, Maurizio Ventura, Nicolas Greggio, and Diego Marazza
SOIL, 8, 199–211,Short summary
Biochar, a solid product from the thermal conversion of biomass, can be used as a climate change mitigation strategy, since it can sequester carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the soil. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of biochar as a mitigation strategy in the long term, by modelling the results obtained from an 8-year field experiment. As far as we know, this is the first time that a model for biochar degradation has been validated with long-term field data.
Ling Mao, Shaoming Ye, and Shengqiang Wang
Revised manuscript accepted for SOILShort summary
Soil ecological stoichiometry offers a sort of effective way to explore the distribution, cycling, limitation, and balance of chemical elements in tea plantation ecosystems. This study improved the understanding of soil OC and nutrient dynamics in tea plantation ecosystems, and also provided supplementary information for soil ecological stoichiometry in global terrestrial ecosystems.
Daniel Rath, Nathaniel Bogie, Leonardo Deiss, Sanjai J. Parikh, Daoyuan Wang, Samantha Ying, Nicole Tautges, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Teamrat A. Ghezzehei, and Kate M. Scow
SOIL, 8, 59–83,Short summary
Storing C in subsoils can help mitigate climate change, but this requires a better understanding of subsoil C dynamics. We investigated changes in subsoil C storage under a combination of compost, cover crops (WCC), and mineral fertilizer and found that systems with compost + WCC had ~19 Mg/ha more C after 25 years. This increase was attributed to increased transport of soluble C and nutrients via WCC root pores and demonstrates the potential for subsoil C storage in tilled agricultural systems.
Zuzana Frkova, Chiara Pistocchi, Yuliya Vystavna, Katerina Capkova, Jiri Dolezal, and Federica Tamburini
SOIL, 8, 1–15,Short summary
Phosphorus (P) is essential for life. We studied microbial processes driving the P cycle in soils developed on the same rock but with different ages (0–100 years) in a cold desert. Compared to previous studies under cold climate, we found much slower weathering of P-containing minerals of soil development, likely due to aridity. However, microbes dominate short-term dynamics and progressively redistribute P from the rock into more available forms, making it available for plants at later stages.
Carrie L. Thomas, Boris Jansen, E. Emiel van Loon, and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
SOIL, 7, 785–809,Short summary
Plant organs, such as leaves, contain a variety of chemicals that are eventually deposited into soil and can be useful for studying organic carbon cycling. We performed a systematic review of available data of one type of plant-derived chemical, n-alkanes, to determine patterns of degradation or preservation from the source plant to the soil. We found that while there was degradation in the amount of n-alkanes from plant to soil, some aspects of the chemical signature were preserved.
Yifeng Zhang, Sen Dou, Batande Sinovuyo Ndzelu, Rui Ma, Dandan Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, Shufen Ye, and Hongrui Wang
Revised manuscript under review for SOILShort summary
How to effectively convert corn straw into high quality humic substances, return them to the soil in a relatively stable form, is a more concerned aspect. Application of fermented corn straw treated with Trichoderma reesei returned to the field (FCS-T) can promote the significant improvement of SOC and CPMI. We concluded that, application of the FCS-T in the soil is more valuable and conducive to increasing soil labile organic C and humus C content than direct application of corn straw.
Benjamin Bukombe, Peter Fiener, Alison M. Hoyt, Laurent K. Kidinda, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 639–659,Short summary
Through a laboratory incubation experiment, we investigated the spatial patterns of specific maximum heterotrophic respiration in tropical African mountain forest soils developed from contrasting parent material along slope gradients. We found distinct differences in soil respiration between soil depths and geochemical regions related to soil fertility and the chemistry of the soil solution. The topographic origin of our samples was not a major determinant of the observed rates of respiration.
Patricia Merdy, Yves Lucas, Bruno Coulomb, Adolpho J. Melfi, and Célia R. Montes
SOIL, 7, 585–594,Short summary
Transfer of organic C from topsoil to deeper horizons and the water table is little documented, especially in equatorial environments, despite high primary productivity in the evergreen forest. Using column experiments with podzol soil and a percolating solution sampled in an Amazonian podzol area, we show how the C-rich Bh horizon plays a role in natural organic matter transfer and Si, Fe and Al mobility after a kaolinitic layer transition, thus giving insight to the genesis of tropical podzol.
Jörg Schnecker, D. Boone Meeden, Francisco Calderon, Michel Cavigelli, R. Michael Lehman, Lisa K. Tiemann, and A. Stuart Grandy
SOIL, 7, 547–561,Short summary
Drought and flooding challenge agricultural systems and their management globally. Here we investigated the response of soils from long-term agricultural field sites with simple and diverse crop rotations to either drought or flooding. We found that irrespective of crop rotation complexity, soil and microbial properties were more resistant to flooding than to drought and highly resilient to drought and flooding during single or repeated stress pulses.
Mario Reichenbach, Peter Fiener, Gina Garland, Marco Griepentrog, Johan Six, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 453–475,Short summary
In deeply weathered tropical rainforest soils of Africa, we found that patterns of soil organic carbon stocks differ between soils developed from geochemically contrasting parent material due to differences in the abundance of organo-mineral complexes, the presence/absence of chemical stabilization mechanisms of carbon with minerals and the presence of fossil organic carbon from sedimentary rocks. Physical stabilization mechanisms by aggregation provide additional protection of soil carbon.
Fabian Kalks, Gabriel Noren, Carsten W. Mueller, Mirjam Helfrich, Janet Rethemeyer, and Axel Don
SOIL, 7, 347–362,Short summary
Sedimentary rocks contain organic carbon that may end up as soil carbon. However, this source of soil carbon is overlooked and has not been quantified sufficiently. We analysed 10 m long sediment cores with three different sedimentary rocks. All sediments contain considerable amounts of geogenic carbon contributing 3 %–12 % to the total soil carbon below 30 cm depth. The low 14C content of geogenic carbon can result in underestimations of soil carbon turnover derived from 14C data.
Maximilian Kirsten, Robert Mikutta, Didas N. Kimaro, Karl-Heinz Feger, and Karsten Kalbitz
SOIL, 7, 363–375,Short summary
Mineralogical combinations of aluminous clay and pedogenic Fe oxides revealed significant effects on soil structure and related organic carbon (OC) storage. The mineralogical combination resulting in the largest aggregate stability does not better preserve OC during conversion of forests into croplands. Structural changes in the direction of smaller mean weight diameters do not cancel out the stabilizing effect of soil minerals.
Sophie F. von Fromm, Alison M. Hoyt, Markus Lange, Gifty E. Acquah, Ermias Aynekulu, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Stephan M. Haefele, Steve P. McGrath, Keith D. Shepherd, Andrew M. Sila, Johan Six, Erick K. Towett, Susan E. Trumbore, Tor-G. Vågen, Elvis Weullow, Leigh A. Winowiecki, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 305–332,Short summary
We investigated various soil and climate properties that influence soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa. Our findings indicate that climate and geochemistry are equally important for explaining SOC variations. The key SOC-controlling factors are broadly similar to those for temperate regions, despite differences in soil development history between the two regions.
Claudia Cagnarini, Stephen Lofts, Luigi Paolo D'Acqui, Jochen Mayer, Roman Grüter, Susan Tandy, Rainer Schulin, Benjamin Costerousse, Simone Orlandini, and Giancarlo Renella
SOIL, 7, 107–123,Short summary
Application of organic amendments, although considered a sustainable form of soil fertilisation, may cause an accumulation of trace elements (TEs) in the topsoil. In this research, we analysed the concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in a > 60-year experiment in Switzerland and showed that the dynamic model IDMM adequately predicted the historical TE concentrations in plots amended with farmyard manure, sewage sludge and compost and produced reasonable concentration trends up to 2100.
Simon Baumgartner, Marijn Bauters, Matti Barthel, Travis W. Drake, Landry C. Ntaboba, Basile M. Bazirake, Johan Six, Pascal Boeckx, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 7, 83–94,Short summary
We compared stable isotope signatures of soil profiles in different forest ecosystems within the Congo Basin to assess ecosystem-level differences in N cycling, and we examined the local effect of topography on the isotopic signature of soil N. Soil δ15N profiles indicated that the N cycling in in the montane forest is more closed, whereas the lowland forest and Miombo woodland experienced a more open N cycle. Topography only alters soil δ15N values in forests with high erosional forces.
Rota Wagai, Masako Kajiura, and Maki Asano
SOIL, 6, 597–627,Short summary
Global significance of metals (extractable Fe and Al phases) to control organic matter (OM) in recognized. Next key questions include the identification of their localization and mechanism behind OM–metal relationships. Across 23 soils of contrasting mineralogy, Fe and Al phases were mainly associated with microbially processed OM as meso-density microaggregates. OM- and metal-rich nanocomposites with a narrow OM : metal ratio likely acted as binding agents. A new conceptual model was proposed.
Marco Panettieri, Denis Courtier-Murias, Cornelia Rumpel, Marie-France Dignac, Gonzalo Almendros, and Abad Chabbi
SOIL, 6, 435–451,Short summary
In the context of global change, soil has been identified as a potential C sink, depending on land-use strategies. This work is devoted to identifying the processes affecting labile soil C pools resulting from changes in land use. We show that the land-use change in ley grassland provoked a decoupling of the storage and degradation processes after the grassland phase. Overall, the study enables us to develop a sufficient understanding of fine-scale C dynamics to refine soil C prediction models.
Miriam Groß-Schmölders, Pascal von Sengbusch, Jan Paul Krüger, Kristy Klein, Axel Birkholz, Jens Leifeld, and Christine Alewell
SOIL, 6, 299–313,Short summary
Degradation turns peatlands into a source of CO2. There is no cost- or time-efficient method available for indicating peatland hydrology or the success of restoration. We found that 15N values have a clear link to microbial communities and degradation. We identified trends in natural, drained and rewetted conditions and concluded that 15N depth profiles can act as a reliable and efficient tool for obtaining information on current hydrology, restoration success and drainage history.
Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Harald U. Sverdrup, Kevin H. Bishop, Salim Belyazid, Ali Ameli, and Stephan J. Köhler
SOIL, 6, 231–244,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate how new equations describing base cation release from mineral weathering can reproduce patterns in observations from stream and soil water. This is a major step towards modeling base cation cycling on the catchment scale, which would be valuable for defining the highest sustainable rates of forest harvest and levels of acidifying deposition.
Benjamin Andrieux, David Paré, Julien Beguin, Pierre Grondin, and Yves Bergeron
SOIL, 6, 195–213,Short summary
Our study aimed to disentangle the contribution of several drivers to explaining the proportion of soil carbon that can be released to CO2 through microbial respiration. We found that boreal-forest soil chemistry is an important driver of the amount of carbon that microbes can process. Our results emphasize the need to include the effects of soil chemistry into models of carbon cycling to better anticipate the role played by boreal-forest soils in carbon-cycle–climate feedbacks.
Jonathan Sanderman and A. Stuart Grandy
SOIL, 6, 131–144,Short summary
Soils contain one of the largest and most dynamic pools of carbon on Earth, yet scientists still struggle to understand the reactivity and fate of soil organic matter upon disturbance. In this study, we found that with increasing thermal stability, the turnover time of organic matter increased from decades to centuries with a concurrent shift in chemical composition. In this proof-of-concept study, we found that ramped thermal analyses can provide new insights for understanding soil carbon.
Carlos Alberto Quesada, Claudia Paz, Erick Oblitas Mendoza, Oliver Lawrence Phillips, Gustavo Saiz, and Jon Lloyd
SOIL, 6, 53–88,Short summary
Amazon soils hold as much carbon (C) as is contained in the vegetation. In this work we sampled soils across 8 different Amazonian countries to try to understand which soil properties control current Amazonian soil C concentrations. We confirm previous knowledge that highly developed soils hold C through clay content interactions but also show a previously unreported mechanism of soil C stabilization in the younger Amazonian soil types which hold C through aluminium organic matter interactions.
Songyu Yang, Boris Jansen, Samira Absalah, Rutger L. van Hall, Karsten Kalbitz, and Erik L. H. Cammeraat
SOIL, 6, 1–15,Short summary
Soils store large carbon and are important for global warming. We do not know what factors are important for soil carbon storage in the alpine Andes or how they work. We studied how rainfall affects soil carbon storage related to soil structure. We found soil structure is not important, but soil carbon storage and stability controlled by rainfall is dependent on rocks under the soils. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the rocks when we study soil carbon storage in the Andes.
Samuel Bouchoms, Zhengang Wang, Veerle Vanacker, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 5, 367–382,Short summary
Soil erosion has detrimental effects on soil fertility which can reduce carbon inputs coming from crops to soils. Our study integrated this effect into a model linking soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics to erosion and crop productivity. When compared to observations, the inclusion of productivity improved SOC loss predictions. Over centuries, ignoring crop productivity evolution in models could result in underestimating SOC loss and overestimating C exchanged with the atmosphere.
Nicholas P. Rosenstock, Johan Stendahl, Gregory van der Heijden, Lars Lundin, Eric McGivney, Kevin Bishop, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 351–366,Short summary
Biofuel harvests from forests involve large removals of available nutrients, necessitating accurate measurements of soil nutrient stocks. We found that dilute hydrochloric acid extractions from soils released far more Ca, Na, and K than classical salt–extracted exchangeable nutrient pools. The size of these acid–extractable pools may indicate that forest ecosystems could sustain greater biomass extractions of Ca, Mg, and K than are predicted from salt–extracted exchangeable base cation pools.
Tiphaine Chevallier, Kenji Fujisaki, Olivier Roupsard, Florian Guidat, Rintaro Kinoshita, Elias de Melo Viginio Filho, Peter Lehner, and Alain Albrecht
SOIL, 5, 315–332,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial C stock. Andosols of volcanic areas hold particularly large stocks (e.g. from 24 to 72 kgC m−2 in the upper 2 m of soil) as determined via MIR spectrometry at our Costa Rican study site: a 1 km2 basin covered by coffee agroforestry. Andic soil properties explained this high variability, which did not correlate with stocks in the upper 20 cm of soil. Topography and pedogenesis are needed to understand the SOC stocks at landscape scales.
Katelyn A. Congreves, Trang Phan, and Richard E. Farrell
SOIL, 5, 265–274,Short summary
There are surprising grey areas in the precise quantification of pathways that produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as influenced by soil moisture. Here, we take a new look at a classic study but use isotopomers as a powerful tool to determine the source pathways of nitrous oxide as regulated by soil moisture. Our results support earlier research, but we contribute scientific advancements by providing models that enable quantifying source partitioning rather than just inferencing.
Eric McGivney, Jon Petter Gustafsson, Salim Belyazid, Therese Zetterberg, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 63–77,Short summary
Forest management may lead to long-term soil acidification due to the removal of base cations during harvest. By means of the HD-MINTEQ model, we compared the acidification effects of harvesting with the effects of historical acid rain at three forested sites in Sweden. The effects of harvesting on pH were predicted to be much smaller than those resulting from acid deposition during the 20th century. There were only very small changes in predicted weathering rates due to acid rain or harvest.
Veronika Kronnäs, Cecilia Akselsson, and Salim Belyazid
SOIL, 5, 33–47,Short summary
Weathering rates in forest soils are important for sustainable forestry but cannot be measured. In this paper, we have modelled weathering with the commonly used PROFILE model as well as with the dynamic model ForSAFE, better suited to a changing climate with changing human activities but never before tested for weathering calculations. We show that ForSAFE gives comparable weathering rates to PROFILE and that it shows the variation in weathering with time and works well for scenario modelling.
Jon Petter Gustafsson, Salim Belyazid, Eric McGivney, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 4, 237–250,Short summary
This paper investigates how different dynamic soil chemistry models describe the processes governing aluminium and base cations in acid soil waters. We find that traditional cation-exchange equations, which are still used in many models, diverge from state-of-the-art complexation submodels such as WHAM, SHM, and NICA-Donnan when large fluctuations in pH or ionic strength occur. In conclusion, the complexation models provide a better basis for the modelling of chemical dynamics in acid soils.
Talal Darwish, Thérèse Atallah, and Ali Fadel
SOIL, 4, 225–235,Short summary
This paper is part of the GSP-ITPS effort to produce a global SOC map and update information on C stocks using old and new soil information to assess the potential for enhanced C sequestration in dry land areas of the NENA region. We used the DSMW from FAO-UNESCO (2007), focusing on organic and inorganic content in 0.3 m of topsoil and 0.7 m of subsoil, to discuss the human factors affecting the accumulation of organic C and the fate of inorganic C.
Eleanor Ursula Hobley, Brian Murphy, and Aaron Simmons
SOIL, 4, 169–171,Short summary
This research evaluates equations to calculate soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Although various equations exist for SOC stock calculations, we recommend using the simplest equation with THE lowest associated errors. Adjusting SOC stock calculations for rock content is essential. Using the mass proportion of rocks to do so minimizes error.
Cora Vos, Angélica Jaconi, Anna Jacobs, and Axel Don
SOIL, 4, 153–167,Short summary
Soil organic carbon sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools. We assessed how soil organic carbon is distributed among C pools in Germany, identified factors influencing this distribution and identified regions with high vulnerability to C losses. Explanatory variables were soil texture, C / N ratio, soil C content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history as heathlands or peatlands.
Sebastian Rainer Fiedler, Jürgen Augustin, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Gerald Jurasinski, Bertram Gusovius, and Stephan Glatzel
SOIL, 3, 161–176,Short summary
Injection of biogas digestates (BDs) is suspected to increase losses of N2O and thus to counterbalance prevented NH3 emissions. We determined N2O and N2 losses after mixing high concentrations of BD into two soils by an incubation under an artificial helium–oxygen atmosphere. Emissions did not increase with the application rate of BD, probably due to an inhibitory effect of the high NH4+ content in BD on nitrification. However, cumulated gaseous N losses may effectively offset NH3 reductions.
Ranae Dietzel, Matt Liebman, and Sotirios Archontoulis
SOIL, 3, 139–152,Short summary
Roots deeper in the soil are made up of more carbon and less nitrogen compared to roots at shallower depths, which may help explain deep-carbon origin. A comparison of prairie and maize rooting systems showed that in moving from prairie to maize, a large, structural-tissue-dominated root carbon pool with slow turnover concentrated at shallow depths was replaced by a small, nonstructural-tissue-dominated root carbon pool with fast turnover evenly distributed in the soil profile.
Julie N. Weitzman and Jason P. Kaye
SOIL, 3, 95–112,Short summary
Prior research found nitrate losses in mid-Atlantic streams following drought but no mechanistic explanation. We aim to understand how legacy sediments influence soil–stream nitrate transfer. We found that surface legacy sediments do not retain excess nitrate inputs well; once exposed, previously buried soils experience the largest drought-induced nitrate losses; and, restoration that reconnects stream and floodplain via legacy sediment removal may initially cause high losses of nitrate.
Florian Wilken, Michael Sommer, Kristof Van Oost, Oliver Bens, and Peter Fiener
SOIL, 3, 83–94,Short summary
Model-based analyses of the effect of soil erosion on carbon (C) dynamics are associated with large uncertainties partly resulting from oversimplifications of erosion processes. This study evaluates the need for process-oriented modelling to analyse erosion-induced C fluxes in different catchments. The results underline the importance of a detailed representation of tillage and water erosion processes. For water erosion, grain-size-specific transport is essential to simulate lateral C fluxes.
Samuel N. Araya, Marilyn L. Fogel, and Asmeret Asefaw Berhe
SOIL, 3, 31–44,Short summary
This research investigates how fires of different intensities affect soil organic matter properties. This study identifies critical temperature thresholds of significant soil organic matter changes. Findings from this study will contribute towards estimating the amount and rate of changes in soil carbon, nitrogen, and other essential soil properties that can be expected from fires of different intensities under anticipated climate change scenarios.
Lesego Khomo, Susan Trumbore, Carleton R. Bern, and Oliver A. Chadwick
SOIL, 3, 17–30,Short summary
We evaluated mineral control of organic carbon dynamics by relating the content and age of carbon stored in soils of varied mineralogical composition found in the landscapes of Kruger National Park, South Africa. Carbon associated with smectite clay minerals, which have stronger surface–organic matter interactions, averaged about a thousand years old, while most soil carbon was only decades to centuries old and was associated with iron and aluminum oxide minerals.
Jonathan Sanderman, Courtney Creamer, W. Troy Baisden, Mark Farrell, and Stewart Fallon
SOIL, 3, 1–16,Short summary
Knowledge of how soil carbon stocks and flows change in response to agronomic management decisions is a critical step in devising management strategies that best promote food security while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present 40 years of data demonstrating that increasing productivity both leads to greater carbon stocks and accelerates the decomposition of soil organic matter, thus providing more nutrients back to the crop.
Barry G. Rawlins, Joanna Wragg, Christina Reinhard, Robert C. Atwood, Alasdair Houston, R. Murray Lark, and Sebastian Rudolph
SOIL, 2, 659–671,Short summary
We do not understand processes by which soil bacteria and fungi feed on soil organic matter (SOM). Previous research suggests the location of SOM in aggregates may influence whether bacteria can feed on it more easily. We did an experiment to identify the distribution of SOM on very small scales within nine soil aggregates. There was no clear evidence that the distribution of organic matter influenced how easily the organic matter was fed upon by bacteria.
Anne B. Jansen-Willems, Gary J. Lanigan, Timothy J. Clough, Louise C. Andresen, and Christoph Müller
SOIL, 2, 601–614,Short summary
Legacy effects of increased temperature on both nitrogen (N) transformation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from permanent temperate grassland soil were evaluated. A new source-partitioning model showed the importance of oxidation of organic N as a source of N2O. Gross organic (and not inorganic) N transformation rates decreased in response to the prior soil warming treatment. This was also reflected in reduced N2O emissions associated with organic N oxidation and denitrification.
Juliane Filser, Jack H. Faber, Alexei V. Tiunov, Lijbert Brussaard, Jan Frouz, Gerlinde De Deyn, Alexei V. Uvarov, Matty P. Berg, Patrick Lavelle, Michel Loreau, Diana H. Wall, Pascal Querner, Herman Eijsackers, and Juan José Jiménez
SOIL, 2, 565–582,Short summary
Soils store more than 3 times as much carbon than the atmosphere, but global carbon models still suffer from large uncertainty. We argue that this may be due to the fact that soil animals are not taken into account in such models. They dig, eat and distribute dead organic matter and microorganisms, and the quantity of their activity is often huge. Soil animals affect microbial activity, soil water content, soil structure, erosion and plant growth – and all of this affects carbon cycling.
Sebastian Rainer Fiedler, Peter Leinweber, Gerald Jurasinski, Kai-Uwe Eckhardt, and Stephan Glatzel
SOIL, 2, 475–486,Short summary
We applied Py-FIMS, CO2 measurements and hot-water extraction on farmland to investigate short-term effects of tillage on soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. SOM composition changed on the temporal scale of days and the changes varied significantly under different types of amendment. Particularly obvious were the turnover of lignin-derived substances and depletion of carbohydrates due to soil respiration. The long-term impact of biogas digestates on SOM stocks should be examined more closely.
Louise C. Andresen, Anna-Karin Björsne, Samuel Bodé, Leif Klemedtsson, Pascal Boeckx, and Tobias Rütting
SOIL, 2, 433–442,Short summary
In soil the constant transport of nitrogen (N) containing compounds from soil organic matter and debris out into the soil water, is controlled by soil microbes and enzymes that literally cut down polymers (such as proteins) into single amino acids (AA), hereafter microbes consume AAs and excrete ammonium back to the soil. We developed a method for analysing N turnover and flow of organic N, based on parallel 15N tracing experiments. The numerical model gives robust and simultaneous quantification.
Luitgard Schwendenmann and Cate Macinnis-Ng
SOIL, 2, 403–419,Short summary
This is the first study quantifying total soil CO2 efflux, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration in an old-growth kauri forest. Root biomass explained a high proportion of the spatial variation suggesting that soil CO2 efflux in this forest is not only directly affected by the amount of autotrophic respiration but also by the supply of C through roots and mycorrhiza. Our findings also suggest that biotic factors such as tree structure should be investigated in soil carbon related studies.
Samuel N. Araya, Mercer Meding, and Asmeret Asefaw Berhe
SOIL, 2, 351–366,Short summary
Using laboratory heating, we studied effects of fire intensity on important topsoil characteristics. This study identifies critical temperature thresholds for significant physical and chemical changes in soils that developed under different climate regimes. Findings from this study will contribute towards estimating the amount and rate of change in essential soil properties that can be expected from topsoil exposure to different intensity fires under anticipated climate change scenarios.
Thimo Klotzbücher, Karsten Kalbitz, Chiara Cerli, Peter J. Hernes, and Klaus Kaiser
SOIL, 2, 325–335,Short summary
Uncertainties concerning stabilization of organic compounds in soil limit our basic understanding on soil organic matter (SOM) formation and our ability to model and manage effects of global change on SOM stocks. One controversially debated aspect is the contribution of aromatic litter components, such as lignin and tannins, to stable SOM forms. Here, we summarize and discuss the inconsistencies and propose research options to clear them.
Emmanuel Frossard, Nina Buchmann, Else K. Bünemann, Delwende I. Kiba, François Lompo, Astrid Oberson, Federica Tamburini, and Ouakoltio Y. A. Traoré
SOIL, 2, 83–99,
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The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.
Soil nitrogen (N) is an essential element for plant growth, but its plant-available forms are subject to loss from the environment by leaching and gaseous emissions. Still, factors controlling soil mineral N concentrations at large spatial scales are not well understood. We determined and discussed primary soil controls over the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3− at the continental scale of Australia while considering specific dominant land use patterns on a regional basis.
Soil nitrogen (N) is an essential element for plant growth, but its plant-available forms are...