Articles | Volume 7, issue 2
25 Nov 2021
Review article | 25 Nov 2021
Transformation of n-alkanes from plant to soil: a review
Carrie L. Thomas et al.
No articles found.
Cyrill U. Zosso, Nicholas O. E. Ofiti, Jennifer L. Soong, Emily F. Solly, Margaret S. Torn, Arnaud Huguet, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, and Michael W. I. Schmidt
SOIL, 7, 477–494,Short summary
How subsoil microorganisms respond to warming is largely unknown, despite their crucial role in the soil organic carbon cycle. We observed that the subsoil microbial community composition was more responsive to warming compared to the topsoil community composition. Decreased microbial abundance in subsoils, as observed in this study, might reduce the magnitude of the respiration response over time, and a shift in the microbial community will likely affect the cycling of soil organic carbon.
Milan L. Teunissen van Manen, Boris Jansen, Francisco Cuesta, Susana León-Yánez, and William D. Gosling
Biogeosciences, 17, 5465–5487,Short summary
We measured plant wax in leaves and soils along an environmental gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. These data show how the wax composition changes as the plant material degrades in different environments. Local temperature is reflected in the wax despite the level degradation. The study results warrant further research into a possible causal relationship that may lead to the development of n-alkane patterns as a novel palaeoecological proxy.
Pranav Hirave, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Axel Birkholz, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180,Short summary
Sediment input into water bodies is a prominent threat to freshwater ecosystems. We tested the stability of tracers employed in freshwater sediment tracing based on compound-specific isotope analysis during early degradation in soil. While bulk δ13C values showed no stability, δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids and n-alkanes were stably transferred to the soil without soil particle size dependency after an early degradation in organic horizons, thus indicating their suitability as tracers.
Songyu Yang, Boris Jansen, Samira Absalah, Rutger L. van Hall, Karsten Kalbitz, and Erik L. H. Cammeraat
SOIL, 6, 1–15,Short summary
Soils store large carbon and are important for global warming. We do not know what factors are important for soil carbon storage in the alpine Andes or how they work. We studied how rainfall affects soil carbon storage related to soil structure. We found soil structure is not important, but soil carbon storage and stability controlled by rainfall is dependent on rocks under the soils. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the rocks when we study soil carbon storage in the Andes.
Nicolette Tamara Regina Johanna Maria Jonkman, Esmee Daniëlle Kooijman, Karsten Kalbitz, Nicky Rosa Maria Pouw, and Boris Jansen
SOIL, 5, 303–313,Short summary
In the urban gardens of Kisumu we interviewed female farmers to determine the sources and scope of their agricultural knowledge. We assessed the impact of the knowledge by comparing the influence of two types of management on soil nutrients. While one type of management was more effective in terms of preserving soil nutrients, the other management type had socioeconomic benefits. Both environmental and socioeconomic effects have to be considered in agricultural training to increase their impact.
Marlène Lavrieux, Axel Birkholz, Katrin Meusburger, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Adrian Gilli, Christian Stamm, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2131–2146,Short summary
A fingerprinting approach using compound-specific stable isotopes was applied to a lake sediment core to reconstruct erosion processes over the past 150 years in a Swiss catchment. Even though the reconstruction of land use and eutrophication history was successful, the observation of comparatively low δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids in the sediment suggests their alteration within the lake. Thus, their use as a tool for source attribution in sediment cores needs further investigation.
Boris Jansen and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
SOIL, 3, 211–234,Short summary
The application of lipids in soils as molecular proxies, also often referred to as biomarkers, has dramatically increased in the last decades. Applications range from inferring changes in past vegetation composition to unraveling the turnover of soil organic matter. However, the application of soil lipids as molecular proxies comes with several constraining factors. Here we provide a critical review of the current state of knowledge on the applicability of molecular proxies in soil science.
Martina I. Gocke, Fabian Kessler, Jan M. van Mourik, Boris Jansen, and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
SOIL, 2, 537–549,Short summary
Investigation of a Dutch sandy profile demonstrated that buried soils provide beneficial growth conditions for plant roots in terms of nutrients. The intense exploitation of deep parts of the soil profile, including subsoil and soil parent material, by roots of the modern vegetation is often underestimated by traditional approaches. Potential consequences of deep rooting for terrestrial carbon stocks, located to a relevant part in buried soils, remain largely unknown and require further studies.
Jan M. van Mourik, Thomas V. Wagner, J. Geert de Boer, and Boris Jansen
SOIL, 2, 299–310,
Saskia D. Keesstra, Johan Bouma, Jakob Wallinga, Pablo Tittonell, Pete Smith, Artemi Cerdà, Luca Montanarella, John N. Quinton, Yakov Pachepsky, Wim H. van der Putten, Richard D. Bardgett, Simon Moolenaar, Gerben Mol, Boris Jansen, and Louise O. Fresco
SOIL, 2, 111–128,Short summary
Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has links to several of the UN Sustainable Development Goals which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and related ecosystem services. We discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally and externally in terms of our relations with colleagues in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the set of steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole.
M. Rinderer, H. C. Komakech, D. Müller, G. L. B. Wiesenberg, and J. Seibert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3505–3516,Short summary
A field method for assessing soil moisture in semi-arid conditions is proposed and tested in terms of inter-rater reliability with 40 Tanzanian farmers, students and experts. The seven wetness classes are based on qualitative indicators that one can see, feel or hear. It could be shown that the qualitative wetness classes reflect differences in volumetric water content and neither experience nor a certain level of education was a prerequisite to gain high agreement among raters.
S. Vicca, M. Bahn, M. Estiarte, E. E. van Loon, R. Vargas, G. Alberti, P. Ambus, M. A. Arain, C. Beier, L. P. Bentley, W. Borken, N. Buchmann, S. L. Collins, G. de Dato, J. S. Dukes, C. Escolar, P. Fay, G. Guidolotti, P. J. Hanson, A. Kahmen, G. Kröel-Dulay, T. Ladreiter-Knauss, K. S. Larsen, E. Lellei-Kovacs, E. Lebrija-Trejos, F. T. Maestre, S. Marhan, M. Marshall, P. Meir, Y. Miao, J. Muhr, P. A. Niklaus, R. Ogaya, J. Peñuelas, C. Poll, L. E. Rustad, K. Savage, A. Schindlbacher, I. K. Schmidt, A. R. Smith, E. D. Sotta, V. Suseela, A. Tietema, N. van Gestel, O. van Straaten, S. Wan, U. Weber, and I. A. Janssens
Biogeosciences, 11, 2991–3013,
G. R. Kopittke, E. E. van Loon, A. Tietema, and D. Asscheman
Biogeosciences, 10, 3007–3038,
Related subject area
Soils and biogeochemical cyclingLand use impact on carbon mineralization in well aerated soils is mainly explained by variations of particulate organic matter rather than of soil structureInclusion of biochar in a C dynamics model based on observations from an 8-year field experimentSynergy between compost and cover crops in a Mediterranean row crop system leads to increased subsoil carbon storagePhosphorus dynamics during early soil development in a cold desert: insights from oxygen isotopes in phosphateHeterotrophic soil respiration and carbon cycling in geochemically distinct African tropical forest soilsSoil organic carbon mobility in equatorial podzols: soil column experimentsMicrobial activity responses to water stress in agricultural soils from simple and complex crop rotationsThe role of geochemistry in organic carbon stabilization against microbial decomposition in tropical rainforest soilsGeogenic organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and its contribution to total soil carbonAluminous clay and pedogenic Fe oxides modulate aggregation and related carbon contents in soils of the humid tropicsContinental-scale controls on soil organic carbon across sub-Saharan AfricaModelling of long-term Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb dynamics from soils fertilised with organic amendmentsStable isotope signatures of soil nitrogen on an environmental–geomorphic gradient within the Congo BasinIron and aluminum association with microbially processed organic matter via meso-density aggregate formation across soils: organo-metallic glue hypothesisLand-use perturbations in ley grassland decouple the degradation of ancient soil organic matter from the storage of newly derived carbon inputsSwitch of fungal to bacterial degradation in natural, drained and rewetted oligotrophic peatlands reflected in δ15N and fatty acid compositionCatchment export of base cations: improved mineral dissolution kinetics influence the role of water transit timeBoreal-forest soil chemistry drives soil organic carbon bioreactivity along a 314-year fire chronosequenceRamped thermal analysis for isolating biologically meaningful soil organic matter fractions with distinct residence timesVariations in soil chemical and physical properties explain basin-wide Amazon forest soil carbon concentrationsLithology- and climate-controlled soil aggregate-size distribution and organic carbon stability in the Peruvian AndesEvaluating the effects of soil erosion and productivity decline on soil carbon dynamics using a model-based approachBase cations in the soil bank: non-exchangeable pools may sustain centuries of net loss to forestry and leachingShort-range-order minerals as powerful factors explaining deep soil organic carbon stock distribution: the case of a coffee agroforestry plantation on Andosols in Costa RicaA new look at an old concept: using 15N2O isotopomers to understand the relationship between soil moisture and N2O production pathwaysAssessing the impact of acid rain and forest harvest intensity with the HD-MINTEQ model – soil chemistry of three Swedish conifer sites from 1880 to 2080Dynamic modelling of weathering rates – the benefit over steady-state modellingAluminium and base cation chemistry in dynamic acidification models – need for a reappraisal?Challenges of soil carbon sequestration in the NENA regionContinental soil drivers of ammonium and nitrate in AustraliaComment on “Soil organic stocks are systematically overestimated by misuse of the parameters bulk density and rock fragment content” by Poeplau et al. (2017)Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany – Spatial variability and driving factorsPotential short-term losses of N2O and N2 from high concentrations of biogas digestate in arable soilsA deeper look at the relationship between root carbon pools and the vertical distribution of the soil carbon poolNitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soilsProcess-oriented modelling to identify main drivers of erosion-induced carbon fluxesThermal alteration of soil organic matter properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest firesTimescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogiesGreater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivityThree-dimensional soil organic matter distribution, accessibility and microbial respiration in macroaggregates using osmium staining and synchrotron X-ray computed tomographyLong-term elevation of temperature affects organic N turnover and associated N2O emissions in a permanent grassland soilSoil fauna: key to new carbon modelsTillage-induced short-term soil organic matter turnover and respirationSimultaneous quantification of depolymerization and mineralization rates by a novel 15N tracing modelSoil CO2 efflux in an old-growth southern conifer forest (Agathis australis) – magnitude, components and controlsThermal alteration of soil physico-chemical properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest firesGone or just out of sight? The apparent disappearance of aromatic litter components in soilsSoil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long termOn the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern IndiaEffect of biochar and liming on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system
Steffen Schlüter, Tim Roussety, Lena Rohe, Vusal Guliyev, Evgenia Blagodatskaya, and Thomas Reitz
SOIL, 8, 253–267,Short summary
We combined microstructure analysis via X-ray CT with carbon mineralization analysis via respirometry of intact soil cores from different land uses. We found that the amount of particulate organic matter (POM) exerted a dominant control on carbon mineralization in well-aerated topsoils, whereas soil moisture and macroporosity did not play role. This is because carbon mineralization mainly occurs in microbial hotspots around degrading POM, where it is decoupled from conditions of the bulk soil.
Roberta Pulcher, Enrico Balugani, Maurizio Ventura, Nicolas Greggio, and Diego Marazza
SOIL, 8, 199–211,Short summary
Biochar, a solid product from the thermal conversion of biomass, can be used as a climate change mitigation strategy, since it can sequester carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the soil. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of biochar as a mitigation strategy in the long term, by modelling the results obtained from an 8-year field experiment. As far as we know, this is the first time that a model for biochar degradation has been validated with long-term field data.
Daniel Rath, Nathaniel Bogie, Leonardo Deiss, Sanjai J. Parikh, Daoyuan Wang, Samantha Ying, Nicole Tautges, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Teamrat A. Ghezzehei, and Kate M. Scow
SOIL, 8, 59–83,Short summary
Storing C in subsoils can help mitigate climate change, but this requires a better understanding of subsoil C dynamics. We investigated changes in subsoil C storage under a combination of compost, cover crops (WCC), and mineral fertilizer and found that systems with compost + WCC had ~19 Mg/ha more C after 25 years. This increase was attributed to increased transport of soluble C and nutrients via WCC root pores and demonstrates the potential for subsoil C storage in tilled agricultural systems.
Zuzana Frkova, Chiara Pistocchi, Yuliya Vystavna, Katerina Capkova, Jiri Dolezal, and Federica Tamburini
SOIL, 8, 1–15,Short summary
Phosphorus (P) is essential for life. We studied microbial processes driving the P cycle in soils developed on the same rock but with different ages (0–100 years) in a cold desert. Compared to previous studies under cold climate, we found much slower weathering of P-containing minerals of soil development, likely due to aridity. However, microbes dominate short-term dynamics and progressively redistribute P from the rock into more available forms, making it available for plants at later stages.
Benjamin Bukombe, Peter Fiener, Alison M. Hoyt, Laurent K. Kidinda, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 639–659,Short summary
Through a laboratory incubation experiment, we investigated the spatial patterns of specific maximum heterotrophic respiration in tropical African mountain forest soils developed from contrasting parent material along slope gradients. We found distinct differences in soil respiration between soil depths and geochemical regions related to soil fertility and the chemistry of the soil solution. The topographic origin of our samples was not a major determinant of the observed rates of respiration.
Patricia Merdy, Yves Lucas, Bruno Coulomb, Adolpho J. Melfi, and Célia R. Montes
SOIL, 7, 585–594,Short summary
Transfer of organic C from topsoil to deeper horizons and the water table is little documented, especially in equatorial environments, despite high primary productivity in the evergreen forest. Using column experiments with podzol soil and a percolating solution sampled in an Amazonian podzol area, we show how the C-rich Bh horizon plays a role in natural organic matter transfer and Si, Fe and Al mobility after a kaolinitic layer transition, thus giving insight to the genesis of tropical podzol.
Jörg Schnecker, D. Boone Meeden, Francisco Calderon, Michel Cavigelli, R. Michael Lehman, Lisa K. Tiemann, and A. Stuart Grandy
SOIL, 7, 547–561,Short summary
Drought and flooding challenge agricultural systems and their management globally. Here we investigated the response of soils from long-term agricultural field sites with simple and diverse crop rotations to either drought or flooding. We found that irrespective of crop rotation complexity, soil and microbial properties were more resistant to flooding than to drought and highly resilient to drought and flooding during single or repeated stress pulses.
Mario Reichenbach, Peter Fiener, Gina Garland, Marco Griepentrog, Johan Six, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 453–475,Short summary
In deeply weathered tropical rainforest soils of Africa, we found that patterns of soil organic carbon stocks differ between soils developed from geochemically contrasting parent material due to differences in the abundance of organo-mineral complexes, the presence/absence of chemical stabilization mechanisms of carbon with minerals and the presence of fossil organic carbon from sedimentary rocks. Physical stabilization mechanisms by aggregation provide additional protection of soil carbon.
Fabian Kalks, Gabriel Noren, Carsten W. Mueller, Mirjam Helfrich, Janet Rethemeyer, and Axel Don
SOIL, 7, 347–362,Short summary
Sedimentary rocks contain organic carbon that may end up as soil carbon. However, this source of soil carbon is overlooked and has not been quantified sufficiently. We analysed 10 m long sediment cores with three different sedimentary rocks. All sediments contain considerable amounts of geogenic carbon contributing 3 %–12 % to the total soil carbon below 30 cm depth. The low 14C content of geogenic carbon can result in underestimations of soil carbon turnover derived from 14C data.
Maximilian Kirsten, Robert Mikutta, Didas N. Kimaro, Karl-Heinz Feger, and Karsten Kalbitz
SOIL, 7, 363–375,Short summary
Mineralogical combinations of aluminous clay and pedogenic Fe oxides revealed significant effects on soil structure and related organic carbon (OC) storage. The mineralogical combination resulting in the largest aggregate stability does not better preserve OC during conversion of forests into croplands. Structural changes in the direction of smaller mean weight diameters do not cancel out the stabilizing effect of soil minerals.
Sophie F. von Fromm, Alison M. Hoyt, Markus Lange, Gifty E. Acquah, Ermias Aynekulu, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Stephan M. Haefele, Steve P. McGrath, Keith D. Shepherd, Andrew M. Sila, Johan Six, Erick K. Towett, Susan E. Trumbore, Tor-G. Vågen, Elvis Weullow, Leigh A. Winowiecki, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 305–332,Short summary
We investigated various soil and climate properties that influence soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa. Our findings indicate that climate and geochemistry are equally important for explaining SOC variations. The key SOC-controlling factors are broadly similar to those for temperate regions, despite differences in soil development history between the two regions.
Claudia Cagnarini, Stephen Lofts, Luigi Paolo D'Acqui, Jochen Mayer, Roman Grüter, Susan Tandy, Rainer Schulin, Benjamin Costerousse, Simone Orlandini, and Giancarlo Renella
SOIL, 7, 107–123,Short summary
Application of organic amendments, although considered a sustainable form of soil fertilisation, may cause an accumulation of trace elements (TEs) in the topsoil. In this research, we analysed the concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in a > 60-year experiment in Switzerland and showed that the dynamic model IDMM adequately predicted the historical TE concentrations in plots amended with farmyard manure, sewage sludge and compost and produced reasonable concentration trends up to 2100.
Simon Baumgartner, Marijn Bauters, Matti Barthel, Travis W. Drake, Landry C. Ntaboba, Basile M. Bazirake, Johan Six, Pascal Boeckx, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 7, 83–94,Short summary
We compared stable isotope signatures of soil profiles in different forest ecosystems within the Congo Basin to assess ecosystem-level differences in N cycling, and we examined the local effect of topography on the isotopic signature of soil N. Soil δ15N profiles indicated that the N cycling in in the montane forest is more closed, whereas the lowland forest and Miombo woodland experienced a more open N cycle. Topography only alters soil δ15N values in forests with high erosional forces.
Rota Wagai, Masako Kajiura, and Maki Asano
SOIL, 6, 597–627,Short summary
Global significance of metals (extractable Fe and Al phases) to control organic matter (OM) in recognized. Next key questions include the identification of their localization and mechanism behind OM–metal relationships. Across 23 soils of contrasting mineralogy, Fe and Al phases were mainly associated with microbially processed OM as meso-density microaggregates. OM- and metal-rich nanocomposites with a narrow OM : metal ratio likely acted as binding agents. A new conceptual model was proposed.
Marco Panettieri, Denis Courtier-Murias, Cornelia Rumpel, Marie-France Dignac, Gonzalo Almendros, and Abad Chabbi
SOIL, 6, 435–451,Short summary
In the context of global change, soil has been identified as a potential C sink, depending on land-use strategies. This work is devoted to identifying the processes affecting labile soil C pools resulting from changes in land use. We show that the land-use change in ley grassland provoked a decoupling of the storage and degradation processes after the grassland phase. Overall, the study enables us to develop a sufficient understanding of fine-scale C dynamics to refine soil C prediction models.
Miriam Groß-Schmölders, Pascal von Sengbusch, Jan Paul Krüger, Kristy Klein, Axel Birkholz, Jens Leifeld, and Christine Alewell
SOIL, 6, 299–313,Short summary
Degradation turns peatlands into a source of CO2. There is no cost- or time-efficient method available for indicating peatland hydrology or the success of restoration. We found that 15N values have a clear link to microbial communities and degradation. We identified trends in natural, drained and rewetted conditions and concluded that 15N depth profiles can act as a reliable and efficient tool for obtaining information on current hydrology, restoration success and drainage history.
Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Harald U. Sverdrup, Kevin H. Bishop, Salim Belyazid, Ali Ameli, and Stephan J. Köhler
SOIL, 6, 231–244,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate how new equations describing base cation release from mineral weathering can reproduce patterns in observations from stream and soil water. This is a major step towards modeling base cation cycling on the catchment scale, which would be valuable for defining the highest sustainable rates of forest harvest and levels of acidifying deposition.
Benjamin Andrieux, David Paré, Julien Beguin, Pierre Grondin, and Yves Bergeron
SOIL, 6, 195–213,Short summary
Our study aimed to disentangle the contribution of several drivers to explaining the proportion of soil carbon that can be released to CO2 through microbial respiration. We found that boreal-forest soil chemistry is an important driver of the amount of carbon that microbes can process. Our results emphasize the need to include the effects of soil chemistry into models of carbon cycling to better anticipate the role played by boreal-forest soils in carbon-cycle–climate feedbacks.
Jonathan Sanderman and A. Stuart Grandy
SOIL, 6, 131–144,Short summary
Soils contain one of the largest and most dynamic pools of carbon on Earth, yet scientists still struggle to understand the reactivity and fate of soil organic matter upon disturbance. In this study, we found that with increasing thermal stability, the turnover time of organic matter increased from decades to centuries with a concurrent shift in chemical composition. In this proof-of-concept study, we found that ramped thermal analyses can provide new insights for understanding soil carbon.
Carlos Alberto Quesada, Claudia Paz, Erick Oblitas Mendoza, Oliver Lawrence Phillips, Gustavo Saiz, and Jon Lloyd
SOIL, 6, 53–88,Short summary
Amazon soils hold as much carbon (C) as is contained in the vegetation. In this work we sampled soils across 8 different Amazonian countries to try to understand which soil properties control current Amazonian soil C concentrations. We confirm previous knowledge that highly developed soils hold C through clay content interactions but also show a previously unreported mechanism of soil C stabilization in the younger Amazonian soil types which hold C through aluminium organic matter interactions.
Songyu Yang, Boris Jansen, Samira Absalah, Rutger L. van Hall, Karsten Kalbitz, and Erik L. H. Cammeraat
SOIL, 6, 1–15,Short summary
Soils store large carbon and are important for global warming. We do not know what factors are important for soil carbon storage in the alpine Andes or how they work. We studied how rainfall affects soil carbon storage related to soil structure. We found soil structure is not important, but soil carbon storage and stability controlled by rainfall is dependent on rocks under the soils. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the rocks when we study soil carbon storage in the Andes.
Samuel Bouchoms, Zhengang Wang, Veerle Vanacker, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 5, 367–382,Short summary
Soil erosion has detrimental effects on soil fertility which can reduce carbon inputs coming from crops to soils. Our study integrated this effect into a model linking soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics to erosion and crop productivity. When compared to observations, the inclusion of productivity improved SOC loss predictions. Over centuries, ignoring crop productivity evolution in models could result in underestimating SOC loss and overestimating C exchanged with the atmosphere.
Nicholas P. Rosenstock, Johan Stendahl, Gregory van der Heijden, Lars Lundin, Eric McGivney, Kevin Bishop, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 351–366,Short summary
Biofuel harvests from forests involve large removals of available nutrients, necessitating accurate measurements of soil nutrient stocks. We found that dilute hydrochloric acid extractions from soils released far more Ca, Na, and K than classical salt–extracted exchangeable nutrient pools. The size of these acid–extractable pools may indicate that forest ecosystems could sustain greater biomass extractions of Ca, Mg, and K than are predicted from salt–extracted exchangeable base cation pools.
Tiphaine Chevallier, Kenji Fujisaki, Olivier Roupsard, Florian Guidat, Rintaro Kinoshita, Elias de Melo Viginio Filho, Peter Lehner, and Alain Albrecht
SOIL, 5, 315–332,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial C stock. Andosols of volcanic areas hold particularly large stocks (e.g. from 24 to 72 kgC m−2 in the upper 2 m of soil) as determined via MIR spectrometry at our Costa Rican study site: a 1 km2 basin covered by coffee agroforestry. Andic soil properties explained this high variability, which did not correlate with stocks in the upper 20 cm of soil. Topography and pedogenesis are needed to understand the SOC stocks at landscape scales.
Katelyn A. Congreves, Trang Phan, and Richard E. Farrell
SOIL, 5, 265–274,Short summary
There are surprising grey areas in the precise quantification of pathways that produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as influenced by soil moisture. Here, we take a new look at a classic study but use isotopomers as a powerful tool to determine the source pathways of nitrous oxide as regulated by soil moisture. Our results support earlier research, but we contribute scientific advancements by providing models that enable quantifying source partitioning rather than just inferencing.
Eric McGivney, Jon Petter Gustafsson, Salim Belyazid, Therese Zetterberg, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 63–77,Short summary
Forest management may lead to long-term soil acidification due to the removal of base cations during harvest. By means of the HD-MINTEQ model, we compared the acidification effects of harvesting with the effects of historical acid rain at three forested sites in Sweden. The effects of harvesting on pH were predicted to be much smaller than those resulting from acid deposition during the 20th century. There were only very small changes in predicted weathering rates due to acid rain or harvest.
Veronika Kronnäs, Cecilia Akselsson, and Salim Belyazid
SOIL, 5, 33–47,Short summary
Weathering rates in forest soils are important for sustainable forestry but cannot be measured. In this paper, we have modelled weathering with the commonly used PROFILE model as well as with the dynamic model ForSAFE, better suited to a changing climate with changing human activities but never before tested for weathering calculations. We show that ForSAFE gives comparable weathering rates to PROFILE and that it shows the variation in weathering with time and works well for scenario modelling.
Jon Petter Gustafsson, Salim Belyazid, Eric McGivney, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 4, 237–250,Short summary
This paper investigates how different dynamic soil chemistry models describe the processes governing aluminium and base cations in acid soil waters. We find that traditional cation-exchange equations, which are still used in many models, diverge from state-of-the-art complexation submodels such as WHAM, SHM, and NICA-Donnan when large fluctuations in pH or ionic strength occur. In conclusion, the complexation models provide a better basis for the modelling of chemical dynamics in acid soils.
Talal Darwish, Thérèse Atallah, and Ali Fadel
SOIL, 4, 225–235,Short summary
This paper is part of the GSP-ITPS effort to produce a global SOC map and update information on C stocks using old and new soil information to assess the potential for enhanced C sequestration in dry land areas of the NENA region. We used the DSMW from FAO-UNESCO (2007), focusing on organic and inorganic content in 0.3 m of topsoil and 0.7 m of subsoil, to discuss the human factors affecting the accumulation of organic C and the fate of inorganic C.
Juhwan Lee, Gina M. Garland, and Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel
SOIL, 4, 213–224,Short summary
Soil nitrogen (N) is an essential element for plant growth, but its plant-available forms are subject to loss from the environment by leaching and gaseous emissions. Still, factors controlling soil mineral N concentrations at large spatial scales are not well understood. We determined and discussed primary soil controls over the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3− at the continental scale of Australia while considering specific dominant land use patterns on a regional basis.
Eleanor Ursula Hobley, Brian Murphy, and Aaron Simmons
SOIL, 4, 169–171,Short summary
This research evaluates equations to calculate soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Although various equations exist for SOC stock calculations, we recommend using the simplest equation with THE lowest associated errors. Adjusting SOC stock calculations for rock content is essential. Using the mass proportion of rocks to do so minimizes error.
Cora Vos, Angélica Jaconi, Anna Jacobs, and Axel Don
SOIL, 4, 153–167,Short summary
Soil organic carbon sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools. We assessed how soil organic carbon is distributed among C pools in Germany, identified factors influencing this distribution and identified regions with high vulnerability to C losses. Explanatory variables were soil texture, C / N ratio, soil C content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history as heathlands or peatlands.
Sebastian Rainer Fiedler, Jürgen Augustin, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Gerald Jurasinski, Bertram Gusovius, and Stephan Glatzel
SOIL, 3, 161–176,Short summary
Injection of biogas digestates (BDs) is suspected to increase losses of N2O and thus to counterbalance prevented NH3 emissions. We determined N2O and N2 losses after mixing high concentrations of BD into two soils by an incubation under an artificial helium–oxygen atmosphere. Emissions did not increase with the application rate of BD, probably due to an inhibitory effect of the high NH4+ content in BD on nitrification. However, cumulated gaseous N losses may effectively offset NH3 reductions.
Ranae Dietzel, Matt Liebman, and Sotirios Archontoulis
SOIL, 3, 139–152,Short summary
Roots deeper in the soil are made up of more carbon and less nitrogen compared to roots at shallower depths, which may help explain deep-carbon origin. A comparison of prairie and maize rooting systems showed that in moving from prairie to maize, a large, structural-tissue-dominated root carbon pool with slow turnover concentrated at shallow depths was replaced by a small, nonstructural-tissue-dominated root carbon pool with fast turnover evenly distributed in the soil profile.
Julie N. Weitzman and Jason P. Kaye
SOIL, 3, 95–112,Short summary
Prior research found nitrate losses in mid-Atlantic streams following drought but no mechanistic explanation. We aim to understand how legacy sediments influence soil–stream nitrate transfer. We found that surface legacy sediments do not retain excess nitrate inputs well; once exposed, previously buried soils experience the largest drought-induced nitrate losses; and, restoration that reconnects stream and floodplain via legacy sediment removal may initially cause high losses of nitrate.
Florian Wilken, Michael Sommer, Kristof Van Oost, Oliver Bens, and Peter Fiener
SOIL, 3, 83–94,Short summary
Model-based analyses of the effect of soil erosion on carbon (C) dynamics are associated with large uncertainties partly resulting from oversimplifications of erosion processes. This study evaluates the need for process-oriented modelling to analyse erosion-induced C fluxes in different catchments. The results underline the importance of a detailed representation of tillage and water erosion processes. For water erosion, grain-size-specific transport is essential to simulate lateral C fluxes.
Samuel N. Araya, Marilyn L. Fogel, and Asmeret Asefaw Berhe
SOIL, 3, 31–44,Short summary
This research investigates how fires of different intensities affect soil organic matter properties. This study identifies critical temperature thresholds of significant soil organic matter changes. Findings from this study will contribute towards estimating the amount and rate of changes in soil carbon, nitrogen, and other essential soil properties that can be expected from fires of different intensities under anticipated climate change scenarios.
Lesego Khomo, Susan Trumbore, Carleton R. Bern, and Oliver A. Chadwick
SOIL, 3, 17–30,Short summary
We evaluated mineral control of organic carbon dynamics by relating the content and age of carbon stored in soils of varied mineralogical composition found in the landscapes of Kruger National Park, South Africa. Carbon associated with smectite clay minerals, which have stronger surface–organic matter interactions, averaged about a thousand years old, while most soil carbon was only decades to centuries old and was associated with iron and aluminum oxide minerals.
Jonathan Sanderman, Courtney Creamer, W. Troy Baisden, Mark Farrell, and Stewart Fallon
SOIL, 3, 1–16,Short summary
Knowledge of how soil carbon stocks and flows change in response to agronomic management decisions is a critical step in devising management strategies that best promote food security while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present 40 years of data demonstrating that increasing productivity both leads to greater carbon stocks and accelerates the decomposition of soil organic matter, thus providing more nutrients back to the crop.
Barry G. Rawlins, Joanna Wragg, Christina Reinhard, Robert C. Atwood, Alasdair Houston, R. Murray Lark, and Sebastian Rudolph
SOIL, 2, 659–671,Short summary
We do not understand processes by which soil bacteria and fungi feed on soil organic matter (SOM). Previous research suggests the location of SOM in aggregates may influence whether bacteria can feed on it more easily. We did an experiment to identify the distribution of SOM on very small scales within nine soil aggregates. There was no clear evidence that the distribution of organic matter influenced how easily the organic matter was fed upon by bacteria.
Anne B. Jansen-Willems, Gary J. Lanigan, Timothy J. Clough, Louise C. Andresen, and Christoph Müller
SOIL, 2, 601–614,Short summary
Legacy effects of increased temperature on both nitrogen (N) transformation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from permanent temperate grassland soil were evaluated. A new source-partitioning model showed the importance of oxidation of organic N as a source of N2O. Gross organic (and not inorganic) N transformation rates decreased in response to the prior soil warming treatment. This was also reflected in reduced N2O emissions associated with organic N oxidation and denitrification.
Juliane Filser, Jack H. Faber, Alexei V. Tiunov, Lijbert Brussaard, Jan Frouz, Gerlinde De Deyn, Alexei V. Uvarov, Matty P. Berg, Patrick Lavelle, Michel Loreau, Diana H. Wall, Pascal Querner, Herman Eijsackers, and Juan José Jiménez
SOIL, 2, 565–582,Short summary
Soils store more than 3 times as much carbon than the atmosphere, but global carbon models still suffer from large uncertainty. We argue that this may be due to the fact that soil animals are not taken into account in such models. They dig, eat and distribute dead organic matter and microorganisms, and the quantity of their activity is often huge. Soil animals affect microbial activity, soil water content, soil structure, erosion and plant growth – and all of this affects carbon cycling.
Sebastian Rainer Fiedler, Peter Leinweber, Gerald Jurasinski, Kai-Uwe Eckhardt, and Stephan Glatzel
SOIL, 2, 475–486,Short summary
We applied Py-FIMS, CO2 measurements and hot-water extraction on farmland to investigate short-term effects of tillage on soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. SOM composition changed on the temporal scale of days and the changes varied significantly under different types of amendment. Particularly obvious were the turnover of lignin-derived substances and depletion of carbohydrates due to soil respiration. The long-term impact of biogas digestates on SOM stocks should be examined more closely.
Louise C. Andresen, Anna-Karin Björsne, Samuel Bodé, Leif Klemedtsson, Pascal Boeckx, and Tobias Rütting
SOIL, 2, 433–442,Short summary
In soil the constant transport of nitrogen (N) containing compounds from soil organic matter and debris out into the soil water, is controlled by soil microbes and enzymes that literally cut down polymers (such as proteins) into single amino acids (AA), hereafter microbes consume AAs and excrete ammonium back to the soil. We developed a method for analysing N turnover and flow of organic N, based on parallel 15N tracing experiments. The numerical model gives robust and simultaneous quantification.
Luitgard Schwendenmann and Cate Macinnis-Ng
SOIL, 2, 403–419,Short summary
This is the first study quantifying total soil CO2 efflux, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration in an old-growth kauri forest. Root biomass explained a high proportion of the spatial variation suggesting that soil CO2 efflux in this forest is not only directly affected by the amount of autotrophic respiration but also by the supply of C through roots and mycorrhiza. Our findings also suggest that biotic factors such as tree structure should be investigated in soil carbon related studies.
Samuel N. Araya, Mercer Meding, and Asmeret Asefaw Berhe
SOIL, 2, 351–366,Short summary
Using laboratory heating, we studied effects of fire intensity on important topsoil characteristics. This study identifies critical temperature thresholds for significant physical and chemical changes in soils that developed under different climate regimes. Findings from this study will contribute towards estimating the amount and rate of change in essential soil properties that can be expected from topsoil exposure to different intensity fires under anticipated climate change scenarios.
Thimo Klotzbücher, Karsten Kalbitz, Chiara Cerli, Peter J. Hernes, and Klaus Kaiser
SOIL, 2, 325–335,Short summary
Uncertainties concerning stabilization of organic compounds in soil limit our basic understanding on soil organic matter (SOM) formation and our ability to model and manage effects of global change on SOM stocks. One controversially debated aspect is the contribution of aromatic litter components, such as lignin and tannins, to stable SOM forms. Here, we summarize and discuss the inconsistencies and propose research options to clear them.
Emmanuel Frossard, Nina Buchmann, Else K. Bünemann, Delwende I. Kiba, François Lompo, Astrid Oberson, Federica Tamburini, and Ouakoltio Y. A. Traoré
SOIL, 2, 83–99,
H. C. Hombegowda, O. van Straaten, M. Köhler, and D. Hölscher
SOIL, 2, 13–23,Short summary
Incorporating trees into agriculture systems provides numerous environmental services. In this chronosequence study conducted across S. India, we found that agroforestry systems (AFSs), specifically home gardens, coffee, coconut and mango, can cause soil organic carbon (SOC) to rebound to forest levels. We established 224 plots in 56 clusters and compared the SOC between natural forests, agriculture and AFSs. SOC sequestered depending on AFS type, environmental conditions and tree diversity.
R. Hüppi, R. Felber, A. Neftel, J. Six, and J. Leifeld
SOIL, 1, 707–717,Short summary
Biochar is considered an opportunity to tackle major environmental issues in agriculture. Adding pyrolised organic residues to soil may sequester carbon, increase yields and reduce nitrous oxide emissions from soil. It is unknown, whether the latter is induced by changes in soil pH. We show that biochar application substantially reduces nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system. However, the reduction was only achieved with biochar but not with liming.
Almendros, G. and González-Vila, F. J.: Degradative studies on a soil humin fraction – Sequential degradation of inherited humin, Soil Biol. Biochem., 19, 513–520, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(87)90093-9, 1987.
Almendros, G., Martin, F., and González-Vila, F. J.: Effects of fire and humic lipid fractions in a Dystric Xerochrept in Spain, Geoderma, 42, 115–127, 1988.
Almendros, G., Sanz, J., and Velasco, F.: Signatures of lipid assemblages in soils under continental Mediterranean forests, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 47, 183–196, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1996.tb01389.x, 1996.
Andersson, R. A. and Meyers, P. A.: Effect of climate change on delivery and degradation of lipid biomarkers in a Holocene peat sequence in the Eastern European Russian Arctic, Org. Geochem., 53, 63–72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.05.002, 2012.
Angst, G., John, S., Mueller, C. W., Kögel-Knabner, I., and Rethemeyer, J.: Tracing the sources and spatial distribution of organic carbon in subsoils using a multi-biomarker approach, Sci. Rep., 6, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29478, 2016.
Anokhina, N. A., Demin, V. V., and Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.: Compositions of n-alkanes and n-methyl ketones in soils of the forest-park zone of Moscow, Eurasian Soil Sc., 51, 637–646, https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229318060030, 2018.
Bivand, R. S., Pebesma, E. J., and Gomez-Rubio, V.: Applied spatial data analysis with R, Second edition, Springer, NY, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7618-4, 2013.
Bliedtner, M., Schäfer, I. K., Zech, R., and von Suchodoletz, H.: Leaf wax n-alkanes in modern plants and topsoils from eastern Georgia (Caucasus) – implications for reconstructing regional paleovegetation, Biogeosciences, 15, 3927–3936, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-3927-2018, 2018.
Bourbonniere, R. A. and Meyers, P. A.: Sedimentary geolipid records of historical changes in the watersheds and productivities of Lakes Ontario and Erie, Limnol. Oceanogr., 41, 352–359, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1996.41.2.0352, 1996.
Bradford, M. A., Tordoff, G. M., Eggers, T., Jones, T. H., and Newington, J. E.: Microbiota, fauna, and mesh size interactions in litter decomposition, Oikos, 99, 317–323, https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.990212.x, 2002.
Bray, E. E. and Evans, E. D.: Distribution of n-paraffins as a clue to recognition of source beds, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 22, 2–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(61)90069-2, 1961.
Brittingham, A., Hren, M. T., and Hartman, G.: Microbial alteration of the hydrogen and carbon isotopic composition of n- alkanes in sediments, Org. Geochem., 107, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2017.01.010, 2017.
Buggle, B., Wiesenberg, G. L. B., and Glaser, B.: Is there a possibility to correct fossil n-alkane data for postsedimentary alteration effects?, Appl. Geochem., 25, 947–957, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.04.003, 2010.
Bull, I. D., Bergen, P. F. van, Nott, C. J., Poulton, P. R., and Evershed, R. P.: Organic geochemical studies of soils from the Rothamsted classical experiments—V. The fate of lipids in different long-term experiments, Org. Geochem., 31, 389–408, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00008-5, 2000.
Bush, R. T. and McInerney, F. A.: Leaf wax n-alkane distributions in and across modern plants: Implications for paleoecology and chemotaxonomy, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 117, 161–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.04.016, 2013.
Bush, R. T. and McInerney, F. A.: Influence of temperature and C4 abundance on n-alkane chain length distributions across the central USA, Org. Geochem., 79, 65–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.12.003, 2015.
Celerier, J., Rodier, C., Favetta, P., Lemee, L., and Ambles, A.: Depth-related variations in organic matter at the molecular level in a loamy soil: reference data for a long-term experiment devoted to the carbon sequestration research field, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 60, 33–43, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2008.01085.x, 2009.
Chikaraishi, Y. and Naraoka, H.: Carbon and hydrogen isotope variation of plant biomarkers in a plant–soil system, Chemical Geol., 231, 190–202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.01.026, 2006.
Chikaraishi, Y., Kaneko, M., and Ohkouchi, N.: Stable hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of long-chain (C21–C33)n-alkanes and n-alkenes in insects, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 95, 53–62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2012.07.036, 2012.
Cranwell, P. A.: Diagenesis of free and bound lipids in terrestrial detritus deposited in a lacustrine sediment, Org. Geochem., 3, 79–89, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(81)90002-4, 1981.
Crausbay, S., Genderjahn, S., Hotchkiss, S., Sachse, D., Kahmen, A., and Arndt, S. K.: Vegetation dynamics at the upper reaches of a tropical montane forest are driven by disturbance over the past 7300 years, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 46, 787–799, https://doi.org/10.1657/1938-4246-46.4.787, 2014.
Cui, J., Huang, J., Meyers, P. A., Huang, X., Li, J., and Liu, W.: Variation in solvent-extractable lipids and n-alkane compound- specific carbon isotopic compositions with depth in a southern China karst area soil, J. Earth Sci., 21, 382–391, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-010-0101-5, 2010.
Diefendorf, A. F. and Freimuth, E. J.: Extracting the most from terrestrial plant-derived n-alkyl lipids and their carbon isotopes from the sedimentary record: A review, Org. Geochem., 103, 1–21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.10.016, 2017.
Eglinton, G., Hamilton, R. J., and Raphael, R. A.: Hydrocarbon constituents of the wax coatings of plant leaves: A taxonomic survey, Nature, 193, 739-742, https://doi.org/10.1038/193739a0, 1962a.
Eglinton, G., Gonzalez, A. G., Hamilton, R. J., and Raphael, R. A.: Hydrocarbon constituents of the wax coatings of plant leaves: A taxonomic survey, Phytochem., 1, 89–102, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88006-1, 1962b.
Eglinton, T. I. and Eglinton, G.: Molecular proxies for paleoclimatology, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 275, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.07.012, 2008.
Feng, X. and Simpson, M. J.: The distribution and degradation of biomarkers in Alberta grassland soil profiles, Org. Geochem., 38, 1558–1570, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2007.05.001, 2007.
Ficken, K. J., Barber, K. E., and Eglinton, G.: Lipid biomarker, δ13C and plant macrofossil stratigraphy of a Scottish montane peat bog over the last two millennia, Org. Geochem., 28, 217–237, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146- 6380(97)00126-5, 1998.
Gamarra, B. and Kahmen, A.: Concentrations and δ2H values of cuticular n-alkanes vary significantly among plant organs, species and habitats in grasses from an alpine and a temperate European grassland, Oecologia, 178, 981–998, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-015-3278-6, 2015.
Gocke, M., Kuzyakov, Y., and Wiesenberg, G. L. B.: Rhizoliths in loess – evidence for post-sedimentary incorporation of root- derived organic matter in terrestrial sediments as assessed from molecular proxies, Org. Geochem., 41, 1198– 1206, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2010.08.001, 2010.
González-Pérez, J. A., González-Vila, F. J., González-Vázquez, R., Arias, M. E., Rodríguez, J., and Knicker, H.: Use of multiple biogeochemical parameters to monitor the recovery of soils after forest fires, Org. Geochem., 39, 940–944, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.03.014, 2008.
Grimalt, J. O., Torras, E., and Albaigés, J.: Bacterial reworking of sedimentary lipids during sample storage, Org. Geochem., 13, 741–746, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(88)90096-4, 1988.
Gurevitch, J., Koricheva, J., Nakagawa, S., and Stewart, G.: Meta-analysis and the science of research synthesis, Nature, 555, 175–182, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25753, 2018.
Hagenberg, S., Wehling, K., and Wiermann, R.: n-Alkanes - common surface constituents of pollen from gymno-and angiosperms, Z. Naturforsch. C., 45, 1090–1092, https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-1990-11-1203, 1990.
Heinrich, S., Dippold, M. A., Werner, C., Wiesenberg, G. L. B., Kuzyakov, Y., and Glaser, B.: Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ 13C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Tree Physiol., 35, 1176–1191, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpv083, 2015.
Hirave, P., Wiesenberg, G. L. B., Birkholz, A., and Alewell, C.: Understanding the effects of early degradation on isotopic tracers: implications for sediment source attribution using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-2169-2020, 2020.
Hoefs, M. J. L., Rijpstra, W. I. C., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: The influence of oxic degradation on the sedimentary biomarker record I: evidence from Madeira Abyssal Plain turbidites, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 66, 2719–2735, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)00864-5, 2002.
Hoffmann, C., Schulz, S., Eberhardt, E., Grosse, M., Stein, S., Specka, X., Svoboda, N., and Heinrich, U.: Data standards for soil- and agricultural research, BonaRes Series, https://doi.org/10.20387/BonaRes-ARM4-66M2, 2020.
Howard, S., McInerney, F. A., Caddy-Retalic, S., Hall, P. A., and Andrae, J. W.: Modelling leaf wax n-alkane inputs to soils along a latitudinal transect across Australia, Org. Geochem., 121, 126–137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2018.03.013, 2018.
Huang, Y., Bol, R., Harkness, D. D., Ineson, P., and Eglinton, G.: Post-glacial variations in distributions, 13C and 14C contents of aliphatic hydrocarbons and bulk organic matter in three types of British acid upland soils, Org. Geochem., 24, 273–287, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(96)00039-3, 1996.
Huang, Y., Eglinton, G., Ineson, P., Latter, P. M., Bol, R., and Harkness, D. D.: Absence of carbon isotope fractionation of individual n-alkanes in a 23-year field decomposition experiment with Calluna vulgaris, Org. Geochem., 26, 497–501, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(97)00027-2, 1997.
IUSS Working Group: World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps, World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome, 2014.
Jansen, B. and Nierop, K. G. J.: Methyl ketones in high altitude Ecuadorian Andosols confirm excellent conservation of plant- specific n-alkane patterns, Org. Geochem., 40, 61–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.09.006, 2009.
Jansen, B. and Wiesenberg, G. L. B.: Opportunities and limitations related to the application of plant-derived lipid molecular proxies in soil science, SOIL, 3, 211–234, https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-3-211-2017, 2017.
Jansen, B., Nierop, K. G. J., Hageman, J. A., Cleef, A. M., and Verstraten, J. M.: The straight-chain lipid biomarker composition of plant species responsible for the dominant biomass production along two altitudinal transects in the Ecuadorian Andes, Org. Geochem., 37, 1514–1536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.06.018, 2006.
Kassambara, A.: ggpubr: “ggplot2” Based Publication Ready Plots, R package version 0.4.0., available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ggpubr (last access: 24 September 2021), 2020.
Keiluweit, M., Wanzek, T., Kleber, M., Nico, P., and Fendorf, S.: Anaerobic microsites have an unaccounted role in soil carbon stabilization, Nat. Comm., 8, 1771, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01406-6, 2017.
Klein, D. A., Davis, J. A., and Casida, L. E.: Oxidation of n-alkanes to ketones by an Arthrobacter species, A. van Leeuw. J. Microb., 34, 495–503, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02046471, 1968.
Kögel-Knabner, I.: The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter, Soil Biol. Biochem., 34, 139–162, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00158-4, 2002.
Kolattukudy, P. E. (Ed.): Chemistry and Biochemistry of Natural Waxes, Elsevier, 459 pp., 1976.
Kuhn, T. K., Krull, E. S., Bowater, A., Grice, K., and Gleixner, G.: The occurrence of short chain n-alkanes with an even over odd predominance in higher plants and soils, Org. Geochem., 41, 88–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.08.003, 2010.
Lehmann, J. and Kleber, M.: The contentious nature of soil organic matter, Nature, 528, 60–68, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16069, 2015.
Lehmann, J., Hansel, C. M., Kaiser, C., Kleber, M., Maher, K., Manzoni, S., Nunan, N., Reichstein, M., Schimel, J. P., Torn, M. S., Wieder, W. R., and Kögel-Knabner, I.: Persistence of soil organic carbon caused by functional complexity, Nat. Geosci., 13, 529–534, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0612-3, 2020.
Lehtonen, K. and Ketola, M.: Solvent-extractable lipids of Sphagnum, Carex, Bryales and Carex-Bryales peats: content and compositional features vs peat humification, Org. Geochem., 20, 363–380, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(93)90126-V, 1993.
Lemma, B., Mekonnen, B., Glaser, B., Zech, W., Nemomissa, S., Bekele, T., Bittner, L., and Zech, M.: Chemotaxonomic patterns of vegetation and soils along altitudinal transects of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, and implications for paleovegetation reconstructions – Part II: lignin-derived phenols and leaf-wax-derived n-alkanes, E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 68, 189–200, https://doi.org/10.5194/egqsj-68-189-2019, 2019.
Li, R., Fan, J., Xue, J., and Meyers, P. A.: Effects of early diagenesis on molecular distributions and carbon isotopic compositions of leaf wax long chain biomarker n-alkanes: Comparison of two one-year-long burial experiments, Org. Geochem., 104, 8–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.11.006, 2017.
Li, X., Anderson, B. J., Vogeler, I., and Schwendenmann, L.: Long-chain n-alkane and n-fatty acid characteristics in plants and soil - potential to separate plant growth forms, primary and secondary grasslands?, Sci. Tot. Environ, 645, 1567–1578, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.105, 2018.
Lichtfouse, É., Chenu, C., Baudin, F., Leblond, C., Da Silva, M., Behar, F., Derenne, S., Largeau, C., Wehrung, P., and Albrecht, P.: A novel pathway of soil organic matter formation by selective preservation of resistant straight-chain biopolymers: chemical and isotope evidence, Org. Geochem., 28, 411–415, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146- 6380(98)00005-9, 1998.
Marseille, F., Disnar, J. R., Guillet, B., and Noack, Y.: n-Alkanes and free fatty acids in humus and A1 horizons of soils under beech, spruce and grass in the Massif-Central (Mont-Lozère), France, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 50, 433–441, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2389.1999.00243.x, 1999.
Marzi, R., Torkelson, B. E., and Olson, R. K.: A revised carbon preference index, Org. Geochem., 20, 1303–1306, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(93)90016-5, 1993.
Meyers, P. A. and Ishiwatari, R.: Lacustrine organic geochemistry—an overview of indicators of organic matter sources and diagenesis in lake sediments, Org. Geochem., 20, 867–900, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(93)90100-P,1993.
Moucawi, J., Fustec, E., Jambu, P., Amblès, A., and Jacquesy, R.: Biooxidation of added and natural hydrocarbons in soils: Effect of iron, Soil Biol. Biochem., 13, 335–342, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(81)90073-0, 1981.
Nelson, D. B., Ladd, S. N., Schubert, C. J., and Kahmen, A.: Rapid atmospheric transport and large-scale deposition of recently synthesized plant waxes, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 222, 599–617, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2017.11.018, 2018.
Nguyen Tu, T. T., Egasse, C., Anquetil, C., Zanetti, F., Zeller, B., Huon, S., and Derenne, S.: Leaf lipid degradation in soils and surface sediments: A litterbag experiment, Org. Geochem., 104, 35–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.12.001, 2017.
Oades, J. M.: The retention of organic matter in soils, Biogeochemistry, 5, 35–70, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02180317, 1988.
Otto, A. and Simpson, M. J.: Degradation and preservation of vascular plant-derived biomarkers in grassland and forest soils from western Canada, Biogeochemistry, 74, 377–409, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-004-5834-8, 2005.
Otto, A., Shunthirasingham, C., and Simpson, M. J.: A comparison of plant and microbial biomarkers in grassland soils from the Prairie Ecozone of Canada, Org. Geochem., 36, 425–448, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2004.09.008, 2005.
Pebesma, E. J.: Simple Features for R: Standardized Support for Spatial Vector Data, The R Journal, 10, 439–446, https://doi.org/10.32614/RJ-2018-009, 2018.
Pebesma, E. J. and Bivand, R. S.: Classes and methods for spatial data in R, R News, 5, available at: https://cran.r-project.org/doc/Rnews/ (last access: 24 September 2021), 2005.
Peters, K. E., Walters, C. C., and Moldowan, J. M.: The Biomarker Guide, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 492 pp., https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511524868, 2005.
Poynter, J., Farrimond, P., Robinson, N., and Eglinton, G.: Aeolian-derived higher plant lipids in the marine sedimentary record: Links with palaeoclimate, in: Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport, Springer, 435–462, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0995-3, 1989.
R Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, available at: https://www.R-project.org/ (last access: 24 September 2021), 2019.
Rogge, W. F., Hildemann, L. M., Mazurek, M. A., Cass, G. R., and Simoneit, B. R. T.: Sources of fine organic aerosol, 4. Particulate abrasion products from leaf surfaces of urban plants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 2700–2711, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00049a008, 1993.
Rojo, F.: Degradation of alkanes by bacteria, Environ. Microbiol., 11, 2477–2490, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462- 2920.2009.01948.x, 2009.
Scalan, E. S. and Smith, J. E.: An improved measure of the odd-even predominance in the normal alkanes of sediment extracts and petroleum, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 34, 611–620, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(70)90019-0, 1970.
Schädel, C., Beem-Miller, J., Aziz Rad, M., Crow, S. E., Hicks Pries, C. E., Ernakovich, J., Hoyt, A. M., Plante, A., Stoner, S., Treat, C. C., and Sierra, C. A.: Decomposability of soil organic matter over time: the Soil Incubation Database (SIDb, version 1.0) and guidance for incubation procedures, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1511–1524, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-1511-2020, 2020.
Schäfer, I. K., Lanny, V., Franke, J., Eglinton, T. I., Zech, M., Vysloužilová, B., and Zech, R.: Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect, SOIL, 2, 551–564, https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2-551-2016, 2016.
Schmidt, M. W. I., Torn, M. S., Abiven, S., Dittmar, T., Guggenberger, G., Janssens, I. A., Kleber, M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Lehmann, J., Manning, D. A. C., Nannipieri, P., Rasse, D. P., Weiner, S., and Trumbore, S. E.: Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property, Nature, 478, 49– 56, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10386, 2011.
Schulz, S., Giebler, J., Chatzinotas, A., Wick, L. Y., Fetzer, I., Welzl, G., Harms, H., and Schloter, M.: Plant litter and soil type drive abundance, activity and community structure of alkB harbouring microbes in different soil compartments, ISME J, 6, 1763–1774, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2012.17, 2012.
Schwark, L., Zink, K., and Lechterbeck, J.: Reconstruction of postglacial to early Holocene vegetation history in terrestrial Central Europe via cuticular lipid biomarkers and pollen records from lake sediments, Geology, 30, 463–466, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0463:ROPTEH>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Seca, A. M. L., Silva, A. M. S., Silvestre, A. J. D., Cavaleiro, J. A. S., Domingues, F. M. J., and Neto, C. P.: Chemical composition of the light petroleum extract of Hibiscus cannabinus bark and core, Phytochemical Analysis, 11, 345–350, https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1565(200011/12)11:6<345::AID-PCA540>3.0.CO;2-T, 2000.
Settele, J., Scholes, R., Betts, R. A., Bunn, S., Leadley, P., Nepstad, D., Overpeck, J. T., Taboada, M. A., Fischlin, A., Moreno, J. M., Root, T., Musche, M., and Winter, M.: Terrestrial and inland water systems, in: Climate Change 2014 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Cambridge University Press, 271–360, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415379.009, 2015.
Soil Survey Staff: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed., USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, 1–342, 2014.
South, A.: rnaturalearth: World Map Data from Natural Earth, R package version 0.1.0., available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rnaturalearth (last access: 24 September 2021), 2017.
Stout, S. A.: Leaf wax n-alkanes in leaves, litter, and surface soil in a low diversity, temperate deciduous angiosperm forest, Central Missouri, USA, Chem. Ecol., 36, 810–826, https://doi.org/10.1080/02757540.2020.1789118, 2020.
Struck, J., Bliedtner, M., Strobel, P., Schumacher, J., Bazarradnaa, E., and Zech, R.: Leaf wax n-alkane patterns and compound-specific δ13C of plants and topsoils from semi-arid and arid Mongolia, Biogeosciences, 17, 567–580, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-567-2020, 2020.
Tennekes, M.: tmap: Thematic Maps in R, J. Stat. Softw., 84, 1–39, https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v084.i06, 2018.
Trigui, Y., Wolf, D., Sahakyan, L., Hovakimyan, H., Sahakyan, K., Zech, R., Fuchs, M., Wolpert, T., Zech, M., and Faust, D.: First calibration and application of leaf wax n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences and modern plants and soils in Armenia, Geosciences, 9, 263, https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060263, 2019.
Van der Voort, T. S., Zell, C. I., Hagedorn, F., Feng, X., McIntyre, C. P., Haghipour, N., Pannatier, E. G., and Eglinton, T. I.: Diverse soil carbon dynamics expressed at the molecular level, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 11840–11850, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076188, 2017.
Wang, G., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., and Xu, Y.: Chemical and carbon isotopic dynamics of grass organic matter during litter decompositions: A litterbag experiment, Org. Geochem., 69, 106–113, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.02.012, 2014.
Wickham, H.: ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Springer-Verlag New York, 2016.
Wiesenberg, G. L. B., Dorodnikov, M., and Kuzyakov, Y.: Source determination of lipids in bulk soil and soil density fractions after four years of wheat cropping, Geoderma, 156, 267–277, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.02.026, 2010.
Wiesenberg, G. L. B., Schwarzbauer, J., Schmidt, M., and Schwark, L.: Source and turnover of organic matter in agricultural soils derived from n-alkane/n-carboxylic acid compositions and C-isotope signatures, Org. Geochem., 35, 1371–1393, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(04)00122-6, 2004.
Wilkinson, M. D., Dumontier, M., Aalbersberg, Ij. J., Appleton, G., Axton, M., Baak, A., Blomberg, N., Boiten, J.-W., da Silva Santos, L. B., Bourne, P. E., Bouwman, J., Brookes, A. J., Clark, T., Crosas, M., Dillo, I., Dumon, O., Edmunds, S., Evelo, C. T., Finkers, R., Gonzalez-Beltran, A., Gray, A. J. G., Groth, P., Goble, C., Grethe, J. S., Heringa, J., 't Hoen, P. A. C., Hooft, R., Kuhn, T., Kok, R., Kok, J., Lusher, S. J., Martone, M. E., Mons, A., Packer, A. L., Persson, B., Rocca-Serra, P., Roos, M., van Schaik, R., Sansone, S.-A., Schultes, E., Sengstag, T., Slater, T., Strawn, G., Swertz, M. A., Thompson, M., van der Lei, J., van Mulligen, E., Velterop, J., Waagmeester, A., Wittenburg, P., Wolstencroft, K., Zhao, J., and Mons, B.: The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship, Sci. Data, 3, 160018, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.18, 2016.
Wu, M. S., West, A. J., and Feakins, S. J.: Tropical soil profiles reveal the fate of plant wax biomarkers during soil storage, Org. Geochem., 128, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2018.12.011, 2019.
Wüthrich, L., Bliedtner, M., Schäfer, I. K., Zech, J., Shajari, F., Gaar, D., Preusser, F., Salazar, G., Szidat, S., and Zech, R.: Late Quaternary climate and environmental reconstruction based on leaf wax analyses in the loess sequence of Möhlin, Switzerland, E and G Quatern. Sci. J., 66, 91–100, https://doi.org/10.5194/egqsj-66-91-2017, 2017.
Xie, S., Nott, C. J., Avsejs, L. A., Maddy, D., Chambers, F. M., and Evershed, R. P.: Molecular and isotopic stratigraphy in an ombrotrophic mire for paleoclimate reconstruction, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 68, 2849–2862, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2003.08.025, 2004.
Yao, L., Guo, N., He, Y., Xiao, Y., Li, Y., Gao, J., and Guo, Y.: Variations of soil organic matters and plant cuticular waxes along an altitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Plant Soil, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04304-6, 2019.
Zech, M., Buggle, B., Leiber, K., Marković, S., Glaser, B., Hambach, U., Huwe, B., Stevens, T., Sümegi, P., Wiesenberg, G., and Zöller, L.: Reconstructing Quaternary vegetation history in the Carpathian Basin, SE-Europe, using n-alkane biomarkers as molecular fossils: Problems and possible solutions, potential and limitations, E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 58, 148–155, https://doi.org/10.3285/eg.58.2.03, 2009.
Zech, M., Krause, T., Meszner, S., and Faust, D.: Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences – A case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany, Quatern. Int., 296, 108–116, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2012.01.023, 2013.
Zech, M., Pedentchouk, N., Buggle, B., Leiber, K., Kalbitz, K., Marković, S. B., and Glaser, B.: Effect of leaf litter degradation and seasonality on D/H isotope ratios of n-alkane biomarkers, Geochim Cosmochim Ac., 75, 4917–4928, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2011.06.006, 2011.
Zhang, Y., Zheng, M., Meyers, P. A., and Huang, X.: Impact of early diagenesis on distributions of Sphagnum n-alkanes in peatlands of the monsoon region of China, Org. Geochem., 105, 13–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2016.12.007, 2017.
Zhang, Z., Zhao, M., Eglinton, G., Lu, H., and Huang, C.: Leaf wax lipids as paleovegetational and paleoenvironmental proxies for the Chinese Loess Plateau over the last 170kyr, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 575–594, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.03.009, 2006.
Zhou, W., Zheng, Y., Meyers, P. A., Jull, A. J. T., and Xie, S.: Postglacial climate-change record in biomarker lipid compositions of the Hani peat sequence, Northeastern China, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 294, 37–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.02.035, 2010.
Plant organs, such as leaves, contain a variety of chemicals that are eventually deposited into soil and can be useful for studying organic carbon cycling. We performed a systematic review of available data of one type of plant-derived chemical, n-alkanes, to determine patterns of degradation or preservation from the source plant to the soil. We found that while there was degradation in the amount of n-alkanes from plant to soil, some aspects of the chemical signature were preserved.
Plant organs, such as leaves, contain a variety of chemicals that are eventually deposited into...