Articles | Volume 8, issue 1
SOIL, 8, 199–211, 2022
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Original research article 17 Mar 2022
Original research article | 17 Mar 2022
Inclusion of biochar in a C dynamics model based on observations from an 8-year field experiment
Roberta Pulcher et al.
No articles found.
Marco Antonellini, Beatrice Maria Sole Giambastiani, Nicolas Greggio, Luciana Bonzi, Lorenzo Calabrese, Paolo Luciani, Luisa Perini, and Paolo Severi
Proc. IAHS, 382, 263–268,
M. De Giglio, F. Goffo, N. Greggio, N. Merloni, M. Dubbini, and M. Barbarella
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W2, 43–50,
Related subject area
Soils and biogeochemical cyclingSynergy between compost and cover crops in a Mediterranean row crop system leads to increased subsoil carbon storagePhosphorus dynamics during early soil development in a cold desert: insights from oxygen isotopes in phosphateTransformation of n-alkanes from plant to soil: a reviewHeterotrophic soil respiration and carbon cycling in geochemically distinct African tropical forest soilsSoil organic carbon mobility in equatorial podzols: soil column experimentsMicrobial activity responses to water stress in agricultural soils from simple and complex crop rotationsThe role of geochemistry in organic carbon stabilization against microbial decomposition in tropical rainforest soilsLand use impact on carbon mineralization is mainly caused by variation of particulate organic matter content rather than of soil structureGeogenic organic carbon in terrestrial sediments and its contribution to total soil carbonAluminous clay and pedogenic Fe oxides modulate aggregation and related carbon contents in soils of the humid tropicsContinental-scale controls on soil organic carbon across sub-Saharan AfricaModelling of long-term Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb dynamics from soils fertilised with organic amendmentsStable isotope signatures of soil nitrogen on an environmental–geomorphic gradient within the Congo BasinIron and aluminum association with microbially processed organic matter via meso-density aggregate formation across soils: organo-metallic glue hypothesisLand-use perturbations in ley grassland decouple the degradation of ancient soil organic matter from the storage of newly derived carbon inputsSwitch of fungal to bacterial degradation in natural, drained and rewetted oligotrophic peatlands reflected in δ15N and fatty acid compositionCatchment export of base cations: improved mineral dissolution kinetics influence the role of water transit timeBoreal-forest soil chemistry drives soil organic carbon bioreactivity along a 314-year fire chronosequenceRamped thermal analysis for isolating biologically meaningful soil organic matter fractions with distinct residence timesVariations in soil chemical and physical properties explain basin-wide Amazon forest soil carbon concentrationsLithology- and climate-controlled soil aggregate-size distribution and organic carbon stability in the Peruvian AndesEvaluating the effects of soil erosion and productivity decline on soil carbon dynamics using a model-based approachBase cations in the soil bank: non-exchangeable pools may sustain centuries of net loss to forestry and leachingShort-range-order minerals as powerful factors explaining deep soil organic carbon stock distribution: the case of a coffee agroforestry plantation on Andosols in Costa RicaA new look at an old concept: using 15N2O isotopomers to understand the relationship between soil moisture and N2O production pathwaysAssessing the impact of acid rain and forest harvest intensity with the HD-MINTEQ model – soil chemistry of three Swedish conifer sites from 1880 to 2080Dynamic modelling of weathering rates – the benefit over steady-state modellingAluminium and base cation chemistry in dynamic acidification models – need for a reappraisal?Challenges of soil carbon sequestration in the NENA regionContinental soil drivers of ammonium and nitrate in AustraliaComment on “Soil organic stocks are systematically overestimated by misuse of the parameters bulk density and rock fragment content” by Poeplau et al. (2017)Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany – Spatial variability and driving factorsPotential short-term losses of N2O and N2 from high concentrations of biogas digestate in arable soilsA deeper look at the relationship between root carbon pools and the vertical distribution of the soil carbon poolNitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soilsProcess-oriented modelling to identify main drivers of erosion-induced carbon fluxesThermal alteration of soil organic matter properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest firesTimescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogiesGreater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivityThree-dimensional soil organic matter distribution, accessibility and microbial respiration in macroaggregates using osmium staining and synchrotron X-ray computed tomographyLong-term elevation of temperature affects organic N turnover and associated N2O emissions in a permanent grassland soilSoil fauna: key to new carbon modelsTillage-induced short-term soil organic matter turnover and respirationSimultaneous quantification of depolymerization and mineralization rates by a novel 15N tracing modelSoil CO2 efflux in an old-growth southern conifer forest (Agathis australis) – magnitude, components and controlsThermal alteration of soil physico-chemical properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest firesGone or just out of sight? The apparent disappearance of aromatic litter components in soilsSoil properties and not inputs control carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios in cropped soils in the long termOn the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern IndiaEffect of biochar and liming on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system
Daniel Rath, Nathaniel Bogie, Leonardo Deiss, Sanjai J. Parikh, Daoyuan Wang, Samantha Ying, Nicole Tautges, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Teamrat A. Ghezzehei, and Kate M. Scow
SOIL, 8, 59–83,Short summary
Storing C in subsoils can help mitigate climate change, but this requires a better understanding of subsoil C dynamics. We investigated changes in subsoil C storage under a combination of compost, cover crops (WCC), and mineral fertilizer and found that systems with compost + WCC had ~19 Mg/ha more C after 25 years. This increase was attributed to increased transport of soluble C and nutrients via WCC root pores and demonstrates the potential for subsoil C storage in tilled agricultural systems.
Zuzana Frkova, Chiara Pistocchi, Yuliya Vystavna, Katerina Capkova, Jiri Dolezal, and Federica Tamburini
SOIL, 8, 1–15,Short summary
Phosphorus (P) is essential for life. We studied microbial processes driving the P cycle in soils developed on the same rock but with different ages (0–100 years) in a cold desert. Compared to previous studies under cold climate, we found much slower weathering of P-containing minerals of soil development, likely due to aridity. However, microbes dominate short-term dynamics and progressively redistribute P from the rock into more available forms, making it available for plants at later stages.
Carrie L. Thomas, Boris Jansen, E. Emiel van Loon, and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
SOIL, 7, 785–809,Short summary
Plant organs, such as leaves, contain a variety of chemicals that are eventually deposited into soil and can be useful for studying organic carbon cycling. We performed a systematic review of available data of one type of plant-derived chemical, n-alkanes, to determine patterns of degradation or preservation from the source plant to the soil. We found that while there was degradation in the amount of n-alkanes from plant to soil, some aspects of the chemical signature were preserved.
Benjamin Bukombe, Peter Fiener, Alison M. Hoyt, Laurent K. Kidinda, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 639–659,Short summary
Through a laboratory incubation experiment, we investigated the spatial patterns of specific maximum heterotrophic respiration in tropical African mountain forest soils developed from contrasting parent material along slope gradients. We found distinct differences in soil respiration between soil depths and geochemical regions related to soil fertility and the chemistry of the soil solution. The topographic origin of our samples was not a major determinant of the observed rates of respiration.
Patricia Merdy, Yves Lucas, Bruno Coulomb, Adolpho J. Melfi, and Célia R. Montes
SOIL, 7, 585–594,Short summary
Transfer of organic C from topsoil to deeper horizons and the water table is little documented, especially in equatorial environments, despite high primary productivity in the evergreen forest. Using column experiments with podzol soil and a percolating solution sampled in an Amazonian podzol area, we show how the C-rich Bh horizon plays a role in natural organic matter transfer and Si, Fe and Al mobility after a kaolinitic layer transition, thus giving insight to the genesis of tropical podzol.
Jörg Schnecker, D. Boone Meeden, Francisco Calderon, Michel Cavigelli, R. Michael Lehman, Lisa K. Tiemann, and A. Stuart Grandy
SOIL, 7, 547–561,Short summary
Drought and flooding challenge agricultural systems and their management globally. Here we investigated the response of soils from long-term agricultural field sites with simple and diverse crop rotations to either drought or flooding. We found that irrespective of crop rotation complexity, soil and microbial properties were more resistant to flooding than to drought and highly resilient to drought and flooding during single or repeated stress pulses.
Mario Reichenbach, Peter Fiener, Gina Garland, Marco Griepentrog, Johan Six, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 453–475,Short summary
In deeply weathered tropical rainforest soils of Africa, we found that patterns of soil organic carbon stocks differ between soils developed from geochemically contrasting parent material due to differences in the abundance of organo-mineral complexes, the presence/absence of chemical stabilization mechanisms of carbon with minerals and the presence of fossil organic carbon from sedimentary rocks. Physical stabilization mechanisms by aggregation provide additional protection of soil carbon.
Steffen Schlüter, Tim Roussety, Lena Rohe, Vusal Guliyev, Evgenia Blagodatskaya, and Thomas Reitz
Revised manuscript accepted for SOILShort summary
We combined microstructure analysis via X-ray CT with carbon mineralization analysis via respirometry of intact soil cores from different land uses. We found that the amount of particulate organic matter (POM) exerted a dominant control on carbon mineralization in well-aerated topsoils, whereas soil moisture and macroporosity did not play role. This is because carbon mineralization mainly occurs in microbial hotspots around degrading POM, where it is decoupled from conditions of the bulk soil.
Fabian Kalks, Gabriel Noren, Carsten W. Mueller, Mirjam Helfrich, Janet Rethemeyer, and Axel Don
SOIL, 7, 347–362,Short summary
Sedimentary rocks contain organic carbon that may end up as soil carbon. However, this source of soil carbon is overlooked and has not been quantified sufficiently. We analysed 10 m long sediment cores with three different sedimentary rocks. All sediments contain considerable amounts of geogenic carbon contributing 3 %–12 % to the total soil carbon below 30 cm depth. The low 14C content of geogenic carbon can result in underestimations of soil carbon turnover derived from 14C data.
Maximilian Kirsten, Robert Mikutta, Didas N. Kimaro, Karl-Heinz Feger, and Karsten Kalbitz
SOIL, 7, 363–375,Short summary
Mineralogical combinations of aluminous clay and pedogenic Fe oxides revealed significant effects on soil structure and related organic carbon (OC) storage. The mineralogical combination resulting in the largest aggregate stability does not better preserve OC during conversion of forests into croplands. Structural changes in the direction of smaller mean weight diameters do not cancel out the stabilizing effect of soil minerals.
Sophie F. von Fromm, Alison M. Hoyt, Markus Lange, Gifty E. Acquah, Ermias Aynekulu, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Stephan M. Haefele, Steve P. McGrath, Keith D. Shepherd, Andrew M. Sila, Johan Six, Erick K. Towett, Susan E. Trumbore, Tor-G. Vågen, Elvis Weullow, Leigh A. Winowiecki, and Sebastian Doetterl
SOIL, 7, 305–332,Short summary
We investigated various soil and climate properties that influence soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa. Our findings indicate that climate and geochemistry are equally important for explaining SOC variations. The key SOC-controlling factors are broadly similar to those for temperate regions, despite differences in soil development history between the two regions.
Claudia Cagnarini, Stephen Lofts, Luigi Paolo D'Acqui, Jochen Mayer, Roman Grüter, Susan Tandy, Rainer Schulin, Benjamin Costerousse, Simone Orlandini, and Giancarlo Renella
SOIL, 7, 107–123,Short summary
Application of organic amendments, although considered a sustainable form of soil fertilisation, may cause an accumulation of trace elements (TEs) in the topsoil. In this research, we analysed the concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in a > 60-year experiment in Switzerland and showed that the dynamic model IDMM adequately predicted the historical TE concentrations in plots amended with farmyard manure, sewage sludge and compost and produced reasonable concentration trends up to 2100.
Simon Baumgartner, Marijn Bauters, Matti Barthel, Travis W. Drake, Landry C. Ntaboba, Basile M. Bazirake, Johan Six, Pascal Boeckx, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 7, 83–94,Short summary
We compared stable isotope signatures of soil profiles in different forest ecosystems within the Congo Basin to assess ecosystem-level differences in N cycling, and we examined the local effect of topography on the isotopic signature of soil N. Soil δ15N profiles indicated that the N cycling in in the montane forest is more closed, whereas the lowland forest and Miombo woodland experienced a more open N cycle. Topography only alters soil δ15N values in forests with high erosional forces.
Rota Wagai, Masako Kajiura, and Maki Asano
SOIL, 6, 597–627,Short summary
Global significance of metals (extractable Fe and Al phases) to control organic matter (OM) in recognized. Next key questions include the identification of their localization and mechanism behind OM–metal relationships. Across 23 soils of contrasting mineralogy, Fe and Al phases were mainly associated with microbially processed OM as meso-density microaggregates. OM- and metal-rich nanocomposites with a narrow OM : metal ratio likely acted as binding agents. A new conceptual model was proposed.
Marco Panettieri, Denis Courtier-Murias, Cornelia Rumpel, Marie-France Dignac, Gonzalo Almendros, and Abad Chabbi
SOIL, 6, 435–451,Short summary
In the context of global change, soil has been identified as a potential C sink, depending on land-use strategies. This work is devoted to identifying the processes affecting labile soil C pools resulting from changes in land use. We show that the land-use change in ley grassland provoked a decoupling of the storage and degradation processes after the grassland phase. Overall, the study enables us to develop a sufficient understanding of fine-scale C dynamics to refine soil C prediction models.
Miriam Groß-Schmölders, Pascal von Sengbusch, Jan Paul Krüger, Kristy Klein, Axel Birkholz, Jens Leifeld, and Christine Alewell
SOIL, 6, 299–313,Short summary
Degradation turns peatlands into a source of CO2. There is no cost- or time-efficient method available for indicating peatland hydrology or the success of restoration. We found that 15N values have a clear link to microbial communities and degradation. We identified trends in natural, drained and rewetted conditions and concluded that 15N depth profiles can act as a reliable and efficient tool for obtaining information on current hydrology, restoration success and drainage history.
Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Harald U. Sverdrup, Kevin H. Bishop, Salim Belyazid, Ali Ameli, and Stephan J. Köhler
SOIL, 6, 231–244,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate how new equations describing base cation release from mineral weathering can reproduce patterns in observations from stream and soil water. This is a major step towards modeling base cation cycling on the catchment scale, which would be valuable for defining the highest sustainable rates of forest harvest and levels of acidifying deposition.
Benjamin Andrieux, David Paré, Julien Beguin, Pierre Grondin, and Yves Bergeron
SOIL, 6, 195–213,Short summary
Our study aimed to disentangle the contribution of several drivers to explaining the proportion of soil carbon that can be released to CO2 through microbial respiration. We found that boreal-forest soil chemistry is an important driver of the amount of carbon that microbes can process. Our results emphasize the need to include the effects of soil chemistry into models of carbon cycling to better anticipate the role played by boreal-forest soils in carbon-cycle–climate feedbacks.
Jonathan Sanderman and A. Stuart Grandy
SOIL, 6, 131–144,Short summary
Soils contain one of the largest and most dynamic pools of carbon on Earth, yet scientists still struggle to understand the reactivity and fate of soil organic matter upon disturbance. In this study, we found that with increasing thermal stability, the turnover time of organic matter increased from decades to centuries with a concurrent shift in chemical composition. In this proof-of-concept study, we found that ramped thermal analyses can provide new insights for understanding soil carbon.
Carlos Alberto Quesada, Claudia Paz, Erick Oblitas Mendoza, Oliver Lawrence Phillips, Gustavo Saiz, and Jon Lloyd
SOIL, 6, 53–88,Short summary
Amazon soils hold as much carbon (C) as is contained in the vegetation. In this work we sampled soils across 8 different Amazonian countries to try to understand which soil properties control current Amazonian soil C concentrations. We confirm previous knowledge that highly developed soils hold C through clay content interactions but also show a previously unreported mechanism of soil C stabilization in the younger Amazonian soil types which hold C through aluminium organic matter interactions.
Songyu Yang, Boris Jansen, Samira Absalah, Rutger L. van Hall, Karsten Kalbitz, and Erik L. H. Cammeraat
SOIL, 6, 1–15,Short summary
Soils store large carbon and are important for global warming. We do not know what factors are important for soil carbon storage in the alpine Andes or how they work. We studied how rainfall affects soil carbon storage related to soil structure. We found soil structure is not important, but soil carbon storage and stability controlled by rainfall is dependent on rocks under the soils. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the rocks when we study soil carbon storage in the Andes.
Samuel Bouchoms, Zhengang Wang, Veerle Vanacker, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 5, 367–382,Short summary
Soil erosion has detrimental effects on soil fertility which can reduce carbon inputs coming from crops to soils. Our study integrated this effect into a model linking soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics to erosion and crop productivity. When compared to observations, the inclusion of productivity improved SOC loss predictions. Over centuries, ignoring crop productivity evolution in models could result in underestimating SOC loss and overestimating C exchanged with the atmosphere.
Nicholas P. Rosenstock, Johan Stendahl, Gregory van der Heijden, Lars Lundin, Eric McGivney, Kevin Bishop, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 351–366,Short summary
Biofuel harvests from forests involve large removals of available nutrients, necessitating accurate measurements of soil nutrient stocks. We found that dilute hydrochloric acid extractions from soils released far more Ca, Na, and K than classical salt–extracted exchangeable nutrient pools. The size of these acid–extractable pools may indicate that forest ecosystems could sustain greater biomass extractions of Ca, Mg, and K than are predicted from salt–extracted exchangeable base cation pools.
Tiphaine Chevallier, Kenji Fujisaki, Olivier Roupsard, Florian Guidat, Rintaro Kinoshita, Elias de Melo Viginio Filho, Peter Lehner, and Alain Albrecht
SOIL, 5, 315–332,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial C stock. Andosols of volcanic areas hold particularly large stocks (e.g. from 24 to 72 kgC m−2 in the upper 2 m of soil) as determined via MIR spectrometry at our Costa Rican study site: a 1 km2 basin covered by coffee agroforestry. Andic soil properties explained this high variability, which did not correlate with stocks in the upper 20 cm of soil. Topography and pedogenesis are needed to understand the SOC stocks at landscape scales.
Katelyn A. Congreves, Trang Phan, and Richard E. Farrell
SOIL, 5, 265–274,Short summary
There are surprising grey areas in the precise quantification of pathways that produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as influenced by soil moisture. Here, we take a new look at a classic study but use isotopomers as a powerful tool to determine the source pathways of nitrous oxide as regulated by soil moisture. Our results support earlier research, but we contribute scientific advancements by providing models that enable quantifying source partitioning rather than just inferencing.
Eric McGivney, Jon Petter Gustafsson, Salim Belyazid, Therese Zetterberg, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 63–77,Short summary
Forest management may lead to long-term soil acidification due to the removal of base cations during harvest. By means of the HD-MINTEQ model, we compared the acidification effects of harvesting with the effects of historical acid rain at three forested sites in Sweden. The effects of harvesting on pH were predicted to be much smaller than those resulting from acid deposition during the 20th century. There were only very small changes in predicted weathering rates due to acid rain or harvest.
Veronika Kronnäs, Cecilia Akselsson, and Salim Belyazid
SOIL, 5, 33–47,Short summary
Weathering rates in forest soils are important for sustainable forestry but cannot be measured. In this paper, we have modelled weathering with the commonly used PROFILE model as well as with the dynamic model ForSAFE, better suited to a changing climate with changing human activities but never before tested for weathering calculations. We show that ForSAFE gives comparable weathering rates to PROFILE and that it shows the variation in weathering with time and works well for scenario modelling.
Jon Petter Gustafsson, Salim Belyazid, Eric McGivney, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 4, 237–250,Short summary
This paper investigates how different dynamic soil chemistry models describe the processes governing aluminium and base cations in acid soil waters. We find that traditional cation-exchange equations, which are still used in many models, diverge from state-of-the-art complexation submodels such as WHAM, SHM, and NICA-Donnan when large fluctuations in pH or ionic strength occur. In conclusion, the complexation models provide a better basis for the modelling of chemical dynamics in acid soils.
Talal Darwish, Thérèse Atallah, and Ali Fadel
SOIL, 4, 225–235,Short summary
This paper is part of the GSP-ITPS effort to produce a global SOC map and update information on C stocks using old and new soil information to assess the potential for enhanced C sequestration in dry land areas of the NENA region. We used the DSMW from FAO-UNESCO (2007), focusing on organic and inorganic content in 0.3 m of topsoil and 0.7 m of subsoil, to discuss the human factors affecting the accumulation of organic C and the fate of inorganic C.
Juhwan Lee, Gina M. Garland, and Raphael A. Viscarra Rossel
SOIL, 4, 213–224,Short summary
Soil nitrogen (N) is an essential element for plant growth, but its plant-available forms are subject to loss from the environment by leaching and gaseous emissions. Still, factors controlling soil mineral N concentrations at large spatial scales are not well understood. We determined and discussed primary soil controls over the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3− at the continental scale of Australia while considering specific dominant land use patterns on a regional basis.
Eleanor Ursula Hobley, Brian Murphy, and Aaron Simmons
SOIL, 4, 169–171,Short summary
This research evaluates equations to calculate soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Although various equations exist for SOC stock calculations, we recommend using the simplest equation with THE lowest associated errors. Adjusting SOC stock calculations for rock content is essential. Using the mass proportion of rocks to do so minimizes error.
Cora Vos, Angélica Jaconi, Anna Jacobs, and Axel Don
SOIL, 4, 153–167,Short summary
Soil organic carbon sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools. We assessed how soil organic carbon is distributed among C pools in Germany, identified factors influencing this distribution and identified regions with high vulnerability to C losses. Explanatory variables were soil texture, C / N ratio, soil C content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history as heathlands or peatlands.
Sebastian Rainer Fiedler, Jürgen Augustin, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Gerald Jurasinski, Bertram Gusovius, and Stephan Glatzel
SOIL, 3, 161–176,Short summary
Injection of biogas digestates (BDs) is suspected to increase losses of N2O and thus to counterbalance prevented NH3 emissions. We determined N2O and N2 losses after mixing high concentrations of BD into two soils by an incubation under an artificial helium–oxygen atmosphere. Emissions did not increase with the application rate of BD, probably due to an inhibitory effect of the high NH4+ content in BD on nitrification. However, cumulated gaseous N losses may effectively offset NH3 reductions.
Ranae Dietzel, Matt Liebman, and Sotirios Archontoulis
SOIL, 3, 139–152,Short summary
Roots deeper in the soil are made up of more carbon and less nitrogen compared to roots at shallower depths, which may help explain deep-carbon origin. A comparison of prairie and maize rooting systems showed that in moving from prairie to maize, a large, structural-tissue-dominated root carbon pool with slow turnover concentrated at shallow depths was replaced by a small, nonstructural-tissue-dominated root carbon pool with fast turnover evenly distributed in the soil profile.
Julie N. Weitzman and Jason P. Kaye
SOIL, 3, 95–112,Short summary
Prior research found nitrate losses in mid-Atlantic streams following drought but no mechanistic explanation. We aim to understand how legacy sediments influence soil–stream nitrate transfer. We found that surface legacy sediments do not retain excess nitrate inputs well; once exposed, previously buried soils experience the largest drought-induced nitrate losses; and, restoration that reconnects stream and floodplain via legacy sediment removal may initially cause high losses of nitrate.
Florian Wilken, Michael Sommer, Kristof Van Oost, Oliver Bens, and Peter Fiener
SOIL, 3, 83–94,Short summary
Model-based analyses of the effect of soil erosion on carbon (C) dynamics are associated with large uncertainties partly resulting from oversimplifications of erosion processes. This study evaluates the need for process-oriented modelling to analyse erosion-induced C fluxes in different catchments. The results underline the importance of a detailed representation of tillage and water erosion processes. For water erosion, grain-size-specific transport is essential to simulate lateral C fluxes.
Samuel N. Araya, Marilyn L. Fogel, and Asmeret Asefaw Berhe
SOIL, 3, 31–44,Short summary
This research investigates how fires of different intensities affect soil organic matter properties. This study identifies critical temperature thresholds of significant soil organic matter changes. Findings from this study will contribute towards estimating the amount and rate of changes in soil carbon, nitrogen, and other essential soil properties that can be expected from fires of different intensities under anticipated climate change scenarios.
Lesego Khomo, Susan Trumbore, Carleton R. Bern, and Oliver A. Chadwick
SOIL, 3, 17–30,Short summary
We evaluated mineral control of organic carbon dynamics by relating the content and age of carbon stored in soils of varied mineralogical composition found in the landscapes of Kruger National Park, South Africa. Carbon associated with smectite clay minerals, which have stronger surface–organic matter interactions, averaged about a thousand years old, while most soil carbon was only decades to centuries old and was associated with iron and aluminum oxide minerals.
Jonathan Sanderman, Courtney Creamer, W. Troy Baisden, Mark Farrell, and Stewart Fallon
SOIL, 3, 1–16,Short summary
Knowledge of how soil carbon stocks and flows change in response to agronomic management decisions is a critical step in devising management strategies that best promote food security while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present 40 years of data demonstrating that increasing productivity both leads to greater carbon stocks and accelerates the decomposition of soil organic matter, thus providing more nutrients back to the crop.
Barry G. Rawlins, Joanna Wragg, Christina Reinhard, Robert C. Atwood, Alasdair Houston, R. Murray Lark, and Sebastian Rudolph
SOIL, 2, 659–671,Short summary
We do not understand processes by which soil bacteria and fungi feed on soil organic matter (SOM). Previous research suggests the location of SOM in aggregates may influence whether bacteria can feed on it more easily. We did an experiment to identify the distribution of SOM on very small scales within nine soil aggregates. There was no clear evidence that the distribution of organic matter influenced how easily the organic matter was fed upon by bacteria.
Anne B. Jansen-Willems, Gary J. Lanigan, Timothy J. Clough, Louise C. Andresen, and Christoph Müller
SOIL, 2, 601–614,Short summary
Legacy effects of increased temperature on both nitrogen (N) transformation rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from permanent temperate grassland soil were evaluated. A new source-partitioning model showed the importance of oxidation of organic N as a source of N2O. Gross organic (and not inorganic) N transformation rates decreased in response to the prior soil warming treatment. This was also reflected in reduced N2O emissions associated with organic N oxidation and denitrification.
Juliane Filser, Jack H. Faber, Alexei V. Tiunov, Lijbert Brussaard, Jan Frouz, Gerlinde De Deyn, Alexei V. Uvarov, Matty P. Berg, Patrick Lavelle, Michel Loreau, Diana H. Wall, Pascal Querner, Herman Eijsackers, and Juan José Jiménez
SOIL, 2, 565–582,Short summary
Soils store more than 3 times as much carbon than the atmosphere, but global carbon models still suffer from large uncertainty. We argue that this may be due to the fact that soil animals are not taken into account in such models. They dig, eat and distribute dead organic matter and microorganisms, and the quantity of their activity is often huge. Soil animals affect microbial activity, soil water content, soil structure, erosion and plant growth – and all of this affects carbon cycling.
Sebastian Rainer Fiedler, Peter Leinweber, Gerald Jurasinski, Kai-Uwe Eckhardt, and Stephan Glatzel
SOIL, 2, 475–486,Short summary
We applied Py-FIMS, CO2 measurements and hot-water extraction on farmland to investigate short-term effects of tillage on soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. SOM composition changed on the temporal scale of days and the changes varied significantly under different types of amendment. Particularly obvious were the turnover of lignin-derived substances and depletion of carbohydrates due to soil respiration. The long-term impact of biogas digestates on SOM stocks should be examined more closely.
Louise C. Andresen, Anna-Karin Björsne, Samuel Bodé, Leif Klemedtsson, Pascal Boeckx, and Tobias Rütting
SOIL, 2, 433–442,Short summary
In soil the constant transport of nitrogen (N) containing compounds from soil organic matter and debris out into the soil water, is controlled by soil microbes and enzymes that literally cut down polymers (such as proteins) into single amino acids (AA), hereafter microbes consume AAs and excrete ammonium back to the soil. We developed a method for analysing N turnover and flow of organic N, based on parallel 15N tracing experiments. The numerical model gives robust and simultaneous quantification.
Luitgard Schwendenmann and Cate Macinnis-Ng
SOIL, 2, 403–419,Short summary
This is the first study quantifying total soil CO2 efflux, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration in an old-growth kauri forest. Root biomass explained a high proportion of the spatial variation suggesting that soil CO2 efflux in this forest is not only directly affected by the amount of autotrophic respiration but also by the supply of C through roots and mycorrhiza. Our findings also suggest that biotic factors such as tree structure should be investigated in soil carbon related studies.
Samuel N. Araya, Mercer Meding, and Asmeret Asefaw Berhe
SOIL, 2, 351–366,Short summary
Using laboratory heating, we studied effects of fire intensity on important topsoil characteristics. This study identifies critical temperature thresholds for significant physical and chemical changes in soils that developed under different climate regimes. Findings from this study will contribute towards estimating the amount and rate of change in essential soil properties that can be expected from topsoil exposure to different intensity fires under anticipated climate change scenarios.
Thimo Klotzbücher, Karsten Kalbitz, Chiara Cerli, Peter J. Hernes, and Klaus Kaiser
SOIL, 2, 325–335,Short summary
Uncertainties concerning stabilization of organic compounds in soil limit our basic understanding on soil organic matter (SOM) formation and our ability to model and manage effects of global change on SOM stocks. One controversially debated aspect is the contribution of aromatic litter components, such as lignin and tannins, to stable SOM forms. Here, we summarize and discuss the inconsistencies and propose research options to clear them.
Emmanuel Frossard, Nina Buchmann, Else K. Bünemann, Delwende I. Kiba, François Lompo, Astrid Oberson, Federica Tamburini, and Ouakoltio Y. A. Traoré
SOIL, 2, 83–99,
H. C. Hombegowda, O. van Straaten, M. Köhler, and D. Hölscher
SOIL, 2, 13–23,Short summary
Incorporating trees into agriculture systems provides numerous environmental services. In this chronosequence study conducted across S. India, we found that agroforestry systems (AFSs), specifically home gardens, coffee, coconut and mango, can cause soil organic carbon (SOC) to rebound to forest levels. We established 224 plots in 56 clusters and compared the SOC between natural forests, agriculture and AFSs. SOC sequestered depending on AFS type, environmental conditions and tree diversity.
R. Hüppi, R. Felber, A. Neftel, J. Six, and J. Leifeld
SOIL, 1, 707–717,Short summary
Biochar is considered an opportunity to tackle major environmental issues in agriculture. Adding pyrolised organic residues to soil may sequester carbon, increase yields and reduce nitrous oxide emissions from soil. It is unknown, whether the latter is induced by changes in soil pH. We show that biochar application substantially reduces nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system. However, the reduction was only achieved with biochar but not with liming.
Abbruzzini, T. F., Oliveira Zenero, M. D., de Andrade, P. A. M., Dini Andreote, F., Campo, J., and Pellegrino Cerri, C. E.: Effects of Biochar on the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Sugarcane Residues Applied to Soils, Agr. Sci., 8, 869–886, https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.89064, 2017.
Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56, Fao, Rome, 300, 1998.
Brangarí, A. C., Manzoni, S., and Rousk, J.: A soil microbial model to analyze decoupled microbial growth and respiration during soil drying and rewetting, Soil Biol. Biochem., 148, 107871, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.107871, 2020.
Bruun, S., Clauson-Kaas, S., Bobuská, L., and Thomsen, I. K.: Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil: Role of clay, microorganisms and carbonates, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 65, 52–59, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12073, 2014.
Cetin, E., Gupta, R., and Moghtaderi, B.: Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity, Fuel, 84, 1328–1334, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2004.07.016, 2005.
Chao, L., Zhang, W. D., and Wang, S. L.: Understanding the dominant controls on biochar decomposition using boosted regression trees, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 69, 512–520, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12534, 2018.
Coleman, D., Crossley, D., and Hendrix, P. F.: Fundamentals of Soil Ecology, 2nd Edn., Fundam Soil Ecol., 2nd Edn., Academic press, 1–386, 2004.
Coleman, K. and Jenkinson, D. S.: RothC-26.3 – A Model for the turnover of carbon in soil, in: Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models, edited by: Powlson, D. S., Smith, P., and Smith, J. U., Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 237–246, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-61094-3_17, 1996.
Cross, A. and Sohi, S. P.: The priming potential of biochar products in relation to labile carbon contents and soil organic matter status, Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 2127–2134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.06.016, 2011.
Czimczik, C. I. and Masiello, C. A.: Controls on black carbon storage in soils, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, GB3005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002798, 2007.
Dondini, M., Alberti, G., Delle Vedove, G., Ventura, M., Tonon, G., Viger, M., Harris, Z. M., Jenkins, J. R., Richards, M., Pogson, M., Taylor, G., Smith, J. U., and Smith, P.: Evaluation of the ECOSSE model to predict heterotrophic soil respiration by direct measurements: Evaluating the ECOSSE model by direct measurements, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 68, 384–393, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12416, 2017.
Thierry, J.: European Academies Science Advisory Council, Negative Emission Technologies: What Role in Meeting Paris Agreement Targets? EASAC Policy Report 35, Halle (Saale), EASAC Secretariat, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, 2018.
Falloon, P. and Smith, P.: Simulating SOC changes in long-term experiments with rothC and CENTURY: Model evaluation for a regional scale application, Soil Use Manage., 18, 101–111, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00227.x, 2002.
Fangi, Y., Singh, B., Singh, B. P., and Krull, E.: Biochar carbon stability in four contrasting soils, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 65, 60–71, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12094, 2013.
Farina, R., Testani, E., Campanelli, G., Leteo, F., Napoli, R., Canali, S., and Tittarelli, F.: Potential carbon sequestration in a Mediterranean organic vegetable cropping system. A model approach for evaluating the effects of compost and Agro-ecological Service Crops (ASCs), Agr. Syst., 162, 239–248, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2018.02.002, 2018.
Guo, J. and Chen, B.: Insights on the Molecular Mechanism for the Recalcitrance of Biochars: Interactive Effects of Carbon and Silicon Components, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 9103–9112, https://doi.org/10.1021/es405647e, 2014.
Gurwick, N. P., Moore, L. A., Kelly, C., and Elias, P.: A Systematic Review of Biochar Research, with a Focus on Its Stability in situ and Its Promise as a Climate Mitigation Strategy, PLoS ONE, 8, e75932, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075932, 2013.
Han, L., Sun, K., Yang, Y., Xia, X., Li, F., Yang, Z., and Xing, B.: Biochar's stability and effect on the content, composition and turnover of soil organic carbon, Geoderma, 364, 114184, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2020.114184, 2020.
Hoosbeek, M. R., Lukac, M., van Dam, D., Godbold, D. L., Velthorst, E. J., Biondi, F. A., Peressotti, A., Cotrufo, M. F., de Angelis, P., and Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.: More new carbon in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation under Free Air Carbon Enrichment (POPFACE): Cause of increased priming effect?: More New Soil C Under Poplar Face, Glob Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB1040, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002127, 2004.
IPCC: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Core Writing Team, edited by: Pachauri, R. K. and Meyer, L. A., IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp., 2014.
Ippolito, J. A., Cui, L., Kammann, C., Wrage-Mönnig, N., Estavillo, J. M., Fuertes-Mendizabal, T., Cayuela, M. L., Sigua, G., Novak, J., Spokas, K., and Borchard, N.: Feedstock choice, pyrolysis temperature and type influence biochar characteristics: a comprehensive meta-data analysis review, Biochar, 2, 421–438, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42773-020-00067-x, 2020.
Jenkins, J. R., Viger, M., Arnold, E. C., Harris, Z. M., Ventura, M., Miglietta, F., Girardin, C., Edwards, R. J., Rumpel, C., Fornasier, F., Zavalloni, C., Tonon, G., Alberti, G., and Taylor, G.: Biochar alters the soil microbiome and soil function: results of next-generation amplicon sequencing across Europe, GCB Bioenergy, 9, 591–612, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12371, 2017.
Jiang, X., Tan, X., Cheng, J., Haddix, M. L., and Cotrufo, M. F.: Interactions between aged biochar, fresh low molecular weight carbon and soil organic carbon after 3.5 years soil-biochar incubations, Geoderma, 333, 99–107, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.07.016, 2019.
Joseph, S. D., Camps-Arbestain, M., Lin, Y., Munroe, P., Chia, C. H., Hook, J., Van Zwieten, L., Kimber, S., Cowie, A., Singh, B. P., Lehmann, J., Foidl, N., Smernik, R. J., and Amonette, J. E.: An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil, Austr. J. Soil Res., 48, 501–515, https://doi.org/10.1071/SR10009, 2010.
Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B., and Rubel, F.: World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated, Meteorol. Z., 15, 259–263, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130, 2006.
Kuzyakov, Y., Bogomolova, I., and Glaser, B.: Biochar stability in soil: Decomposition during eight years and transformation as assessed by compound-specific 14C analysis, Soil Biol. Biochem., 70, 229–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.12.021, 2014.
Lefebvre, D., Williams, A., Meersmans, J., Kirk, G. J. D., Sohi, S., Goglio, P., and Smith, P.: Modelling the potential for soil carbon sequestration using biochar from sugarcane residues in Brazil, Sci. Rep., 10, 19479, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76470-y, 2020.
Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S.: Biochar for environmental management: science, technology and implementation, 2nd Edn., Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, London, New York, ISBN 978-0-415-70415-1, 2015.
Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M.: Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – A review, Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change, 11, 403–427, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-9006-5, 2006.
Leng, L., Huang, H., Li, H., Li, J., and Zhou, W.: Biochar stability assessment methods: A review, Sci. Total Environ., 647, 210–222, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.402, 2019a.
Leng, L., Huang, H., Li, H., Li, J., and Zhou, W.: Biochar stability assessment by incubation and modelling: Methods, drawbacks and recommendations, Sci. Total Environ., 664, 11–23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.298, 2019b.
Liu, Y., Bi, Y., Xie, Y., Zhao, X., He, D., Wang, S., Wang, C., Guo, T., and Xing, G.: Successive straw biochar amendments reduce nitrous oxide emissions but do not improve the net ecosystem economic benefit in an alkaline sandy loam under a wheat–maize cropping system, Land Degrad. Dev., 31, 868–883, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3495, 2020.
Luo, Y., Durenkamp, M., De Nobili, M., Lin, Q., and Brookes, P. C.: Short term soil priming effects and the mineralisation of biochar following its incorporation to soils of different pH, Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 2304–2314, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.07.020, 2011.
Maestrini, B., Nannipieri, P., and Abiven, S.: A meta-analysis on pyrogenic organic matter induced priming effect, GCB Bioenergy, 7, 577–590, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12194, 2015.
Mondini, C., Cayuela, M. L., Sinicco, T., Fornasier, F., Galvez, A., and Sánchez-Monedero, M. A.: Modification of the RothC model to simulate soil C mineralization of exogenous organic matter, Biogeosciences, 14, 3253–3274, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-3253-2017, 2017.
Nemo, Klumpp, K., Coleman, K., Dondini, M., Goulding, K., Hastings, A., Jones, M., B., Leifeld, J., Osborne, B., Saunders, M., Scott, T., The, Y. A., and Smith, P.: Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Equilibrium and Model Initialisation Methods: an Application to the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) Model, Environ. Model Assess., 22, 215–229, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-016-9536-0, 2017.
Pausch, J. and Kuzyakov, Y.: Carbon input by roots into the soil: Quantification of rhizodeposition from root to ecosystem scale, Glob. Change Biol., 24, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13850, 2018.
Pulcher, R., Balugani, E., and Ventura, M.: Pulcher_2022_SoilArticleDatabase_Inclusionofbiocharina Cdynamicsmodelbased, Zenodo [data set], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6355587, 2022.
Purakayastha, T. J., Kumari, S., and Pathak, H.: Characterisation, stability, and microbial effects of four biochars produced from crop residues, Geoderma, 239/240, 293–303, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.11.009, 2015.
Qi, Y. and Xu, M.: Separating the effects of moisture and temperature on soil CO2 efflux in a coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada mountains, Plant Soil, 237, 15–23, 2001.
Schiedung, M., Bellè, S.-L., Sigmund, G., Kalbitz, K., and Abiven, S.: Vertical mobility of pyrogenic organic matter in soils: a column experiment, Biogeosciences, 17, 6457–6474, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-6457-2020, 2020.
Shu, X., Zou, Y., Shaw, L. J., Todman, L., Tibbett, M., and Sizmur, T.: Mixing crop residues induces a synergistic effect on microbial biomass and an additive effect on soil organic matter priming, Biorxiv, 1–31, 2021.
Six, J., Bossuyt, H., Degryze, S., and Denef, K.: A history of research on the link between (micro)aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics, Soil Till. Res., 79, 7–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.03.008, 2004.
Smith, P.: Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies, Glob. Change Biol., 22, 1315–1324, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13178, 2016.
Smith, P., Soussana, J. F., Angers, D., Schipper, L., Chenu, C., Rasse, D. P., Batjes, N. H., van Egmond, F., McNeill, S, Kuhnert, M., Arias-Navarro, C., Olesen, J. E., Chirinda, N., Fornara, D., Wollenberg, E., Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Sanz-Cobena, A., and Klumpp, K.: How to measure, report and verify soil carbon change to realize the potential of soil carbon sequestration for atmospheric greenhouse gas removal, Glob. Change Biol., 26, 219–241, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14815, 2020.
Stewart, C. E., Zheng, J., Botte, J., and Cotrufo, M. F.: Co-generated fast pyrolysis biochar mitigates green-house gas emissions and increases carbon sequestration in temperate soils, GCB Bioenergy, 5, 153–164, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12001, 2013.
Stockmann, U., Adams, M. A., Crawford, J. W., Field, D. J., Henakaarchchi, N., Jenkins, M., Minasny, B., McBratney, A. B., Courcelles, V. de R. de, Singh, K., Wheeler, I., Abbott, L., Angers, D. A., Baldock, J., Bird, M., Brookes, P.C., Chenu, C., Jastrow, J. D., Lal, R., Lehmann, J., O'Donnell, A. G., Parton, W. J., Whitehead, D., and Zimmermann, M.: The knowns, known unknowns and unknowns of sequestration of soil organic carbon, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 164, 80–99, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.10.001, 2013.
Todman, L. and Neal, A.: Can trait-based approaches model the resilience of soil microbial communities?, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12297, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12297, 2021.
Ventura, M., Alberti, G., Viger, M., Jenkins, J. R., Girardin, C., Baronti, S., Zaldei, A., Taylor, G., Rumpel, C., Miglietta, F., and Tonon, G.: Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition in two European short rotation coppices, GCB Bioenergy, 7, 1150–1160, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12219, 2015.
Ventura, M., Alberti, G., Panzacchi, P., Vedove, G. D., Miglietta, F., and Tonon, G.: Biochar mineralization and priming effect in a poplar short rotation coppice from a 3-year field experiment, Biol. Fert. Soils, 55, 67–78, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-018-1329-y, 2019a.
Ventura, M., Panzacchi, P., Muzzi, E., Magnani, F., and Tonon, G.: Carbon balance and soil carbon input in a poplar short rotation coppice plantation as affected by nitrogen and wood ash application, New Forest, 50, 969–990, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-019-09709-w, 2019b.
Wang, J., Xiong, Z., and Kuzyakov, Y.: Biochar stability in soil: Meta-analysis of decomposition and priming effects, GCB Bioenergy, 8, 512–523, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12266, 2016.
Zahida, R., Waseem, R., Kanth, R. H., Ashaq, H., Parmeet, S., Pir, F. A., Saad, A. A., Lal, S., Tahir, S., Shahid, B., and Aijaz, N.: Biochar: A Tool for Mitigating Climate Change-A Review, Chem. Sci. Rev. Lett., 6, 1561–1574, https://doi.org/10.5930/issn.2278-6783, 2017.
Zanotelli, D., Montagnani, L., Manca, G., and Tagliavini, M.: Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements, Biogeosciences, 10, 3089–3108, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-3089-2013, 2013.
Zhu, L. X., Xiao, Q., Shen, Y. F., and Li, S. Q.: Effects of biochar and maize straw on the short-term carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a cultivated silty loam in China, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 24, 1019–1029, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7829-0, 2017.
Zimmerman, A. R. and Ouyang, L.: Priming of pyrogenic C (biochar) mineralization by dissolved organic matter and vice versa, Soil Biol. Biochem., 130, 105–112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.12.011, 2019.
Zimmerman, A. R., Gao, B., and Ahn, M.: Positive and negative carbon mineralization priming effects among a variety of biochar-amended soils, Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 1169–1179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.02.005, 2011.
Zwahlen, C., Hilbeck, A., and Nentwig, W.: Field decomposition of transgenic Bt maize residue and the impact on non-target soil invertebrates, Plant Soil, 300, 245–257, 2007.
Biochar, a solid product from the thermal conversion of biomass, can be used as a climate change mitigation strategy, since it can sequester carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the soil. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of biochar as a mitigation strategy in the long term, by modelling the results obtained from an 8-year field experiment. As far as we know, this is the first time that a model for biochar degradation has been validated with long-term field data.
Biochar, a solid product from the thermal conversion of biomass, can be used as a climate change...