Articles | Volume 7, issue 2
Original research article 04 Aug 2021
Original research article | 04 Aug 2021
Application of the governance disruptions framework to German agricultural soil policy
Bartosz Bartkowski et al.
No articles found.
Michael Peichl, Stephan Thober, Luis Samaniego, Bernd Hansjürgens, and Andreas Marx
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6523–6545,Short summary
Using a statistical model that can also take complex systems into account, the most important factors affecting wheat yield in Germany are determined. Different spatial damage potentials are taken into account. In many parts of Germany, yield losses are caused by too much soil water in spring. Negative heat effects as well as damaging soil drought are identified especially for north-eastern Germany. The model is able to explain years with exceptionally high yields (2014) and losses (2003, 2018).
Hans-Jörg Vogel, Stephan Bartke, Katrin Daedlow, Katharina Helming, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Birgit Lang, Eva Rabot, David Russell, Bastian Stößel, Ulrich Weller, Martin Wiesmeier, and Ute Wollschläger
SOIL, 4, 83–92,Short summary
This paper deals with the importance of soil for our terrestrial environment and the need to predict the impact of soil management on the multitude of functions that soil provides. We suggest to consider soil as a self-organized complex system and provide a concept of how this could be achieved. This includes how soil research, currently fragmented into a number of more or less disjunct disciplines, may be integrated to substantially contribute to a science-based evaluation of soil functions.
Related subject area
Soils and the human environmentCombining colour parameters and geochemical tracers to improve sediment source discrimination in a mining catchment (New Caledonia, South Pacific Islands)The effects of sealing on urban soil carbon and nutrientsMiddle Bronze Age land use practices in the northwestern Alpine foreland – a multi-proxy study of colluvial deposits, archaeological features and peat bogsSpatial variability in heavy metal concentration in urban pavement joints – a case studyGlobal concentrations of microplastics in soils – a reviewUsing constructed soils for green infrastructure – challenges and limitationsEffects of microplastic and microglass particles on soil microbial community structure in an arable soil (Chernozem)Women's agricultural practices and their effects on soil nutrient content in the Nyalenda urban gardens of Kisumu, KenyaEffects of golf course management on subsurface soil properties in IowaLocal soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledgeHow Alexander von Humboldt's life story can inspire innovative soil research in developing countriesPaleosols can promote root growth of recent vegetation – a case study from the sandy soil–sediment sequence Rakt, the NetherlandsAn insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlandsThe impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes: a reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the central and southeastern NetherlandsSoil archives of a Fluvisol: subsurface analysis and soil history of the medieval city centre of Vlaardingen, the Netherlands – an integral approachEffect of grassland cutting frequency on soil carbon storage – a case study on public lawns in three Swedish citiesFacing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development GoalsThe significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development GoalsCase studies of soil in artEffects of fresh and aged chars from pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization on nutrient sorption in agricultural soilsSoil properties and pre-Columbian settlement patterns in the Monumental Mounds Region of the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian AmazonAn ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria
Virginie Sellier, Oldrich Navratil, John Patrick Laceby, Cédric Legout, Anthony Foucher, Michel Allenbach, Irène Lefèvre, and Olivier Evrard
SOIL, 7, 743–766,Short summary
Open-cast mining increases soil erosion and transfer of sediment in river systems. Providing a methodology to better understand the sediment dynamic of these catchments is essential to manage this pollution. In this study, different tracers such as elemental geochemistry or colour properties were tested to trace and quantify the mining source contributions to the sediment inputs in the Thio River catchment, one of the first areas exploited for nickel mining in New Caledonia (i.e. since 1880).
Roisin O'Riordan, Jess Davies, Carly Stevens, and John N. Quinton
SOIL, 7, 661–675,Short summary
As urban populations grow, soil sealing with impermeable surfaces will increase. At present there is limited knowledge on the effect of sealing on soil carbon and nutrients. We found that, in general, sealing reduced soil carbon and nutrients; however, where there were additions due to human activity, soil carbon and nutrients were increased. This suggests that there is a legacy soil carbon store in areas with an industrial past and highlights the influence of artefacts in urban soil.
Sascha Scherer, Benjamin Höpfer, Katleen Deckers, Elske Fischer, Markus Fuchs, Ellen Kandeler, Jutta Lechterbeck, Eva Lehndorff, Johanna Lomax, Sven Marhan, Elena Marinova, Julia Meister, Christian Poll, Humay Rahimova, Manfred Rösch, Kristen Wroth, Julia Zastrow, Thomas Knopf, Thomas Scholten, and Peter Kühn
SOIL, 7, 269–304,Short summary
This paper aims to reconstruct Middle Bronze Age (MBA) land use practices in the northwestern Alpine foreland (SW Germany, Hegau). We used a multi-proxy approach including biogeochemical proxies from colluvial deposits in the surroundings of a MBA settlement, on-site archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological data and off-site pollen data. From our data we infer land use practices such as plowing, cereal growth, forest farming and use of fire that marked the beginning of major colluvial deposition.
Collin J. Weber, Alexander Santowski, and Peter Chifflard
SOIL, 7, 15–31,Short summary
Pavement joints, defined as the joint between paving stones and filled with different materials, in the inner city area of Marburg (Hesse, Germany) show moderate to high pollution with different heavy metals. Enrichment of heavy metals in pavement joints is related to surface run-off accumulation. As the pollution of pavement joints poses direct risks to the environment and humans in urban areas, the inconspicuous joints should be considered in urban water management strategies.
Frederick Büks and Martin Kaupenjohann
SOIL, 6, 649–662,Short summary
Laboratory experiments that assess microplastic (MP) impact on the terrestrial environment require information on common soil MP concentrations. We reviewed item numbers and mass concentrations recorded in 23 studies, with 223 sampling sites in total with respect to the underlying entry pathways, land uses and vicinities. Common values included amounts of up to 13 000 items kg−1 and 4.5 mg kg−1 dry soil. Based on the collected data, we identified problems in past field studies.
Maha Deeb, Peter M. Groffman, Manuel Blouin, Sara Perl Egendorf, Alan Vergnes, Viacheslav Vasenev, Donna L. Cao, Daniel Walsh, Tatiana Morin, and Geoffroy Séré
SOIL, 6, 413–434,Short summary
The goal of this study was to discuss current methods to create soils adapted for various green infrastructure (GI) designs. Investigating these new soils for several design categories of GI will provide technical information for management and design agencies. Moreover, these studies can serve as pioneer experiments to prevent recurring errors and, thus, provide improved plant growth practices. Results show that these constructed soils have a high potential to provide multiple soil functions.
Katja Wiedner and Steven Polifka
SOIL, 6, 315–324,Short summary
Microplastics and microglass are used in a wide range of everyday and industrial applications acting as abrasives, filler and binding agents, which could enter aquatic and terrestrial environments with unexpected consequences for ecosystems. Our study suggests that different types of microparticles seem to have contrary effects on soil microorganisms, depending on the origin and properties of microparticles. This study should be seen as basis for further research, which is urgently needed.
Nicolette Tamara Regina Johanna Maria Jonkman, Esmee Daniëlle Kooijman, Karsten Kalbitz, Nicky Rosa Maria Pouw, and Boris Jansen
SOIL, 5, 303–313,Short summary
In the urban gardens of Kisumu we interviewed female farmers to determine the sources and scope of their agricultural knowledge. We assessed the impact of the knowledge by comparing the influence of two types of management on soil nutrients. While one type of management was more effective in terms of preserving soil nutrients, the other management type had socioeconomic benefits. Both environmental and socioeconomic effects have to be considered in agricultural training to increase their impact.
Matthew T. Streeter and Keith E. Schilling
SOIL, 4, 93–100,Short summary
Iowa golf courses provide an ideal location to evaluate whether golf course management is affecting the quality of soils at depth. Our study evaluated how soil properties relating to soil health and resiliency varied with depth at golf courses across Iowa and interpreted relationships of these properties to current golf course management and inherent soil properties. Systematic variation in soil properties including sand content, NO3, and SOM was observed with depth.
Brice Prudat, Lena Bloemertz, and Nikolaus J. Kuhn
SOIL, 4, 47–62,Short summary
Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Having tools to assess soil quality is important to evaluate soil conditions and helps targeting important issues. We developed a soil evaluation toolbox that integrates farmers' field experiences and technical knowledge. The combination of local soil descriptions, field soil texture evaluation and soil colour provides locally meaningful information that reveals soil quality improvement potentials.
SOIL, 3, 153–159,Short summary
Alexander von Humboldt was an inspiring scientist in the early 1800s, traveling widely, making many measurements, and linking different scientific disciplines while keeping an eye open to the needs of society. This is particularly relevant today in our information society, and researchers in developing countries are advised to follow the von Humboldt example when planning their future research.
Martina I. Gocke, Fabian Kessler, Jan M. van Mourik, Boris Jansen, and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
SOIL, 2, 537–549,Short summary
Investigation of a Dutch sandy profile demonstrated that buried soils provide beneficial growth conditions for plant roots in terms of nutrients. The intense exploitation of deep parts of the soil profile, including subsoil and soil parent material, by roots of the modern vegetation is often underestimated by traditional approaches. Potential consequences of deep rooting for terrestrial carbon stocks, located to a relevant part in buried soils, remain largely unknown and require further studies.
Leonor Rodrigues, Umberto Lombardo, Mareike Trauerstein, Perrine Huber, Sandra Mohr, and Heinz Veit
SOIL, 2, 367–389,Short summary
Our study examines pre-Columbian agricultural raised fields in the Bolivian Amazon. It provides a new interpretation for pre-Columbian management of raised fields. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100–200 years.
Marieke Doorenbosch and Jan M. van Mourik
SOIL, 2, 311–324,Short summary
Soil records provide information about 5 millennia of heath management in cultural landscapes on sandy soils. Deforestations and the introduction of the deep, stable economy in the 18th century resulted in sand drifting and heath degradation. After the introduction of chemical fertilizers more than 90 % of the heaths were transformed into productive arable field or forests. Currently the last heaths are preserved as part of the cultural heritage.
Sjoerd Kluiving, Tim de Ridder, Marcel van Dasselaar, Stan Roozen, and Maarten Prins
SOIL, 2, 271–285,Short summary
In medieval times the city of Vlaardingen (the Netherlands) was strategically located on the confluence of three rivers, the Maas, the Merwede, and the Vlaarding. Combined research on the history and soil of this city was initiated by an archaeological research question, following Dutch legislation. The start of fluvial system 2 in AD 600 correlates with evidence of the church that was present at least in AD 726/727. Results record the period before and after the flooding in AD 1170.
C. Poeplau, H. Marstorp, K. Thored, and T. Kätterer
SOIL, 2, 175–184,Short summary
We compared two long-term contrasting systems of urban lawn management (frequently cut utility lawn vs. seldomly cut meadow-like lawn) regarding their effect on soil carbon in three Swedish cities. Biomass production was also measured during 1 year. The utility lawns had a significantly higher biomass production, which resulted in a higher soil carbon storage, since clippings were not removed. Soil carbon sequestration outweighed the higher management-related CO2 emissions of the utility lawns.
Johan Bouma and Luca Montanarella
SOIL, 2, 135–145,Short summary
The recently accepted UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a major challenge to the research community, including soil science. SDGs require a interdisciplinary research approach that forces every discipline to critically evaluate its core messages. Effective communication with the policy arena requires use of common policy concepts such as policy phases and distinction of drivers, pressures, and responses to change. To accomodate such needs, research practices will have to change.
Saskia D. Keesstra, Johan Bouma, Jakob Wallinga, Pablo Tittonell, Pete Smith, Artemi Cerdà, Luca Montanarella, John N. Quinton, Yakov Pachepsky, Wim H. van der Putten, Richard D. Bardgett, Simon Moolenaar, Gerben Mol, Boris Jansen, and Louise O. Fresco
SOIL, 2, 111–128,Short summary
Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has links to several of the UN Sustainable Development Goals which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and related ecosystem services. We discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally and externally in terms of our relations with colleagues in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the set of steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole.
C. Feller, E. R. Landa, A. Toland, and G. Wessolek
SOIL, 1, 543–559,Short summary
Case studies of artworks focused on painting, installation, and film are presented, with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil, as a contribution to raising soil awareness.
M. Gronwald, A. Don, B. Tiemeyer, and M. Helfrich
SOIL, 1, 475–489,
U. Lombardo, S. Denier, and H. Veit
SOIL, 1, 65–81,Short summary
In the present paper we explore to what degree soil properties might have influenced pre-Columbian settlement patterns in the Monumental Mounds Region (MMR) of the Llanos de Moxos (LM), Bolivian Amazon. This study provides new data on the soil properties of the south-eastern Bolivian Amazon and reinforces the hypothesis that environmental constraints and opportunities exerted an important role on pre-Columbian occupation patterns and the population density reached in the Bolivian Amazon.
J. P. van Leeuwen, T. Lehtinen, G. J. Lair, J. Bloem, L. Hemerik, K. V. Ragnarsdóttir, G. Gísladóttir, J. S. Newton, and P. C. de Ruiter
SOIL, 1, 83–101,
Bai, Z., Caspari, T., Gonzalez, M. R., Batjes, N. H., Mäder, P., Bünemann, E. K., de Goede, R., Brussaard, L., Xu, M., Ferreira, C. S. S., Reintam, E., Fan, H., Mihelič, R., Glavan, M., and Tóth, Z.: Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 265, 1–7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2018.05.028, 2018.
Bartkowski, B.: Don't throw efficiency out with the bathwater: A reply to Jeffery and Verheijen (2020), Environ. Sci. Policy, 122, 72–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2021.04.011, 2021.
Bartkowski, B. and Bartke, S.: Leverage Points for Governing Agricultural Soils: A Review of Empirical Studies of European Farmers' Decision-Making, Sustainability, 10, 3179, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093179, 2018.
Bartkowski, B., Bartke, S., Helming, K., Paul, C., Techen, A.-K., and Hansjürgens, B.: Potential of the economic valuation of soil-based ecosystem services to inform sustainable soil management and policy, PeerJ, 8, e8749, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8749, 2020.
Bartkowski, B., Droste, N., Ließ, M., Sidemo-Holm, W., Weller, U., and Brady, M. V.: Payments by modelled results: A novel design for agri-environmental schemes, Land Use Policy, 102, 105230, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.105230, 2021.
Bemelmans-Videc, M.-L., Rist, R. C., and Vedung, E. (Eds.): Carrots, sticks & sermons: policy instruments and their evaluation, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A, 280 pp., 1998.
Berbés-Blázquez, M., González, J. A., and Pascual, U.: Towards an ecosystem services approach that addresses social power relations, Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain., 19, 134–143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2016.02.003, 2016.
Binder, S.: Flurbereinigungsplanung und Ökosystemschutz als Rechts- und Governance-Problem, Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg, 426 pp., 2019.
Blackstock, K. L., Novo, P., Byg, A., Creaney, R., Juarez Bourke, A., Maxwell, J. L., Tindale, S. J., and Waylen, K. A.: Policy instruments for environmental public goods: Interdependencies and hybridity, Land Use Policy, 107, 104709, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104709, 2021.
Bolognesi, T. and Nahrath, S.: Environmental Governance Dynamics: Some Micro Foundations of Macro Failures, Ecol. Econ., 170, 106555, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106555, 2020.
Borrelli, P. and Panagos, P.: An indicator to reflect the mitigating effect of Common Agricultural Policy on soil erosion, Land Use Policy, 92, 104467, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104467, 2020.
Borrelli, P., Lugato, E., Montanarella, L., and Panagos, P.: A New Assessment of Soil Loss Due to Wind Erosion in European Agricultural Soils Using a Quantitative Spatially Distributed Modelling Approach, Land Degrad. Dev., 28, 335–344, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2588, 2017.
Borrelli, P., Robinson, D. A., Panagos, P., Lugato, E., Yang, J. E., Alewell, C., Wuepper, D., Montanarella, L., and Ballabio, C.: Land use and climate change impacts on global soil erosion by water (2015-2070), P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 117, 21994–22001, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2001403117, 2020.
Braathen, N. A.: Instrument Mixes for Environmental Policy: How Many Stones Should be Used to Kill a Bird?, Int. Rev. Environ. Resour. Econ., 1, 185–235, https://doi.org/10.1561/101.00000005, 2007.
Braito, M., Leonhardt, H., Penker, M., Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, E., Thaler, G., and Flint, C. G.: The plurality of farmers' views on soil management calls for a policy mix, Land Use Policy, 99, 104876, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104876, 2020.
Brouwer, R., Lienhoop, N., and Oosterhuis, F.: Incentivizing afforestation agreements: Institutional-economic conditions and motivational drivers, J. For. Econ., 21, 205–222, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfe.2015.09.003, 2015.
Brown, C., Kovács, E., Herzon, I., Villamayor-Tomas, S., Albizua, A., Galanaki, A., Grammatikopoulou, I., McCracken, D., Olsson, J. A., and Zinngrebe, Y.: Simplistic understandings of farmer motivations could undermine the environmental potential of the Common Agricultural Policy, Land Use Policy, 101, 105136, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.105136, 2021.
Bruckner, M., Häyhä, T., Giljum, S., Maus, V., Fischer, G., Tramberend, S., and Börner, J.: Quantifying the global cropland footprint of the European Union's non-food bioeconomy, Environ. Res. Lett., 14, 045011, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab07f5, 2019.
Burton, R. J. F. and Schwarz, G.: Result-oriented agri-environmental schemes in Europe and their potential for promoting behavioural change, Land Use Policy, 30, 628–641, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.05.002, 2013.
Cavender-Bares, J., Polasky, S., King, E., and Balvanera, P.: A sustainability framework for assessing trade-offs in ecosystem services, Ecol. Soc., 20, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06917-200117, 2015.
Chapman, P. J., Eze, S., de Bell, S., Barlow-Duncan, F., Firbank, L., Helgason, T., Holden, J., Kay, P., Brown, C. D., White, P. C. L., Little, R., Reed, M., and Ziv, G.: Agricultural Land Management for Public Goods Delivery: iCASP Evidence Review on Soil Health, Yorkshire Integrated Catchment Solutions Programme (iCASP), 2018.
Daedlow, K., Lemke, N., and Helming, K.: Arable Land Tenancy and Soil Quality in Germany: Contesting Theory with Empirics, Sustainability, 10, 2880, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082880, 2018.
Dessart, F. J., Barreiro-Hurlé, J., and van Bavel, R.: Behavioural factors affecting the adoption of sustainable farming practices: a policy-oriented review, Eur. Rev. Agric. Econ., 46, 417–471, https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbz019, 2019.
Deutsche Vernetzungsstelle Ländliche Räume: ELER in Deutschland: Übersicht über die Nationale Rahmenregelung und die Programme der Länder. Programmübersicht 2014-2020, Deutsche Vernetzungsstelle Ländliche Räume; Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung, Bonn, 2015.
EC: A Farm to Fork Strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system [COM(2020) 381], European Commission, Brussels, 2020a.
EC: EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back to our lives [COM(2020) 380], European Commission, Brussels, 2020b.
Frelih-Larsen, A., Bowyer, C., Albrecht, S., Keenleyside, C., Kemper, M., Nanni, S., Naumann, S., Mottershead, D., Landgrebe, R., Andersen, E., Banfi, P., Bell, S., Brémere, I., Cools, J., Herbert, S., Iles, A., Kampa, E., Kettunen, M., Lukacova, Z., Moreira, G., Kiresiewa, Z., Rouillard, J., Okx, J., Pantzar, M., Paquel, K., Pederson, R., Peepson, A., Pelsy, F., Petrovic, D., Psaila, E., Šarapatka, B., Sobocka, J., Stan, A.-C., Tarpey, J., and Vidaurre, R.: Updated inventory and assessment of soil protection policy instruments in EU Member States, Ecologic, Berlin, 2016.
Gaymard, S., Goujon, B., and Lefebvre, M.: Adherence to Environmental Regulation in the European Union Common Agricultural Policy: Social Representations and Conditionality among French Farmers, J. Agric. Food Inf., 21, 104–125, https://doi.org/10.1080/10496505.2020.1772078, 2020.
Glæsner, N., Helming, K., and de Vries, W.: Do Current European Policies Prevent Soil Threats and Support Soil Functions?, Sustainability, 6, 9538–9563, https://doi.org/10.3390/su6129538, 2014.
Gocht, A., Ciaian, P., Bielza, M., Terres, J.-M., Röder, N., Himics, M., and Salputra, G.: EU-wide economic and environmental impacts of CAP greening with high spatial and farm-type detail, J. Agric. Econ., 68, 651–681, https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12217, 2017.
Grajewski, R.: Vier ländliche Entwicklungsprogramme im Vergleich: PFEIL Niedersachsen-Bremen, LPLR Schleswig-Holstein, NRW-Programm Ländlicher Raum und EPLR Hessen: Finanzen – Fördermaßnahmen – Prioritäten – Investitionstypen – Zielgruppen – Implementation, Thünen-Institut, Braunschweig, 2016.
Gunstone, T., Cornelisse, T., Klein, K., Dubey, A., and Donley, N.: Pesticides and Soil Invertebrates: A Hazard Assessment, Front. Environ. Sci., 9, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2021.643847, 2021.
Haddaway, N. R., Hedlund, K., Jackson, L. E., Kätterer, T., Lugato, E., Thomsen, I. K., Jørgensen, H. B., and Isberg, P.-E.: How does tillage intensity affect soil organic carbon? A systematic review, Environ. Evid., 6, 30, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13750-017-0108-9, 2017.
Hagemann, N., Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Siebielec, G., Castañeda, C., Maring, L., Blauw, M., Bartke, S., Dietze, V., Arrúe, J. L., Playán, E., Herrero, J., and Plaza-Bonilla, D.: Providing support in relation to the implementation of the EU Soil Thematic Strategy. Drivers and transboundary impacts of soil degradation, DG Environment, Brussels, 2019.
Hamidov, A., Helming, K., Bellocchi, G., Bojar, W., Dalgaard, T., Ghaley, B. B., Hoffmann, C., Holman, I., Holzkämper, A., Krzeminska, D., Kværnø, S. H., Lehtonen, H., Niedrist, G., Øygarden, L., Reidsma, P., Roggero, P. P., Rusu, T., Santos, C., Seddaiu, G., Skarbøvik, E., Ventrella, D., Żarski, J., and Schönhart, M.: Impacts of climate change adaptation options on soil functions: A review of European case-studies, Land Degrad. Dev., 29, 2378–2389, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3006, 2018.
Hanley, N., Whitby, M., and Simpson, I.: Assessing the success of agri-environmental policy in the UK, Land Use Policy, 16, 67–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8377(98)00041-6, 1999.
Ingram, J. and Mills, J.: Are advisory services “fit for purpose” to support sustainable soil management? An assessment of advice in Europe, Soil Use Manag., 35, 21–31, https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12452, 2019.
IPBES: The assessment report on land degradation and restoration, IPBES Secretariat, Bonn, 2018a.
IPBES: The regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia, IPBES Secretariat, Bonn, 2018b.
IPBES: Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service, IPBES Secretariat, Bonn, 2019.
Jeffery, S. and Verheijen, F. G. A.: A new soil health policy paradigm: Pay for practice not performance!, Environ. Sci. Policy, 112, 371–373, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2020.07.006, 2020.
Juerges, N. and Hansjürgens, B.: Soil governance in the transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy – A review, J. Clean. Prod., 170, 1628–1639, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.10.143, 2018.
Juerges, N., Hagemann, N., and Bartke, S.: A tool to analyse instruments for soil governance: the REEL-framework, J. Environ. Policy Plan., 20, 617–631, https://doi.org/10.1080/1523908X.2018.1474731, 2018.
Jürges, N.: Wahrnehmungen und Funktionen in der Transformation zur Bioökonomie – Eine Akteursanalyse im Politikfeld “Boden”, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung, Leipzig, 2016.
Keesstra, S. D., Bouma, J., Wallinga, J., Tittonell, P., Smith, P., Cerdà, A., Montanarella, L., Quinton, J. N., Pachepsky, Y., van der Putten, W. H., Bardgett, R. D., Moolenaar, S., Mol, G., Jansen, B., and Fresco, L. O.: The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, SOIL, 2, 111–128, https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2-111-2016, 2016.
Leonhardt, H., Penker, M., and Salhofer, K.: Do farmers care about rented land? A multi-method study on land tenure and soil conservation, Land Use Policy, 82, 228–239, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.12.006, 2019.
Mack, G., Kohler, A., Heitkämper, K., and El-Benni, N.: Determinants of the perceived administrative transaction costs caused by the uptake of an agri-environmental program, J. Environ. Plan. Manag., 62, 1802–1819, https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2018.1515311, 2019.
Mack, G., Ritzel, C., and Jan, P.: Determinants for the Implementation of Action-, Result- and Multi-Actor-Oriented Agri-Environment Schemes in Switzerland, Ecol. Econ., 176, 106715, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106715, 2020.
Marquard, E., Bartke, S., Gifreu i Font, J., Humer, A., Jonkman, A., Jürgenson, E., Marot, N., Poelmans, L., Repe, B., Rybski, R., Schröter-Schlaack, C., Sobocká, J., Tophøj Sørensen, M., Vejchodská, E., Yiannakou, A., and Bovet, J.: Land Consumption and Land Take: Enhancing Conceptual Clarity for Evaluating Spatial Governance in the EU Context, Sustainability, 12, 8269, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198269, 2020.
Marx, K. and Jacobs, A.: SOILAssist-Teilprojekt “Akzeptanz und Implementierung”: Analyse behördlicher Handlungsempfehlungen zur Vermeidung von Bodenverdichtung auf Ackerböden, Thünen Working Paper, https://doi.org/10.3220/WP1604915142000, 2020.
Mitter, H., Techen, A.-K., Sinabell, F., Helming, K., Schmid, E., Bodirsky, B. L., Holman, I., Kok, K., Lehtonen, H., Leip, A., Le Mouël, C., Mathijs, E., Mehdi, B., Mittenzwei, K., Mora, O., Øistad, K., Øygarden, L., Priess, J. A., Reidsma, P., Schaldach, R., and Schönhart, M.: Shared Socio-economic Pathways for European agriculture and food systems: The Eur-Agri-SSPs, Glob. Environ. Change, 65, 102159, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102159, 2020.
Möckel, S.: “Best available techniques” as a mandatory basic standard for more sustainable agricultural land use in Europe?, Land Use Policy, 47, 342–351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.04.021, 2015a.
Möckel, S.: Politische und rechtliche Ziele zum vorsorgenden Schutz der Böden in Deutschland, Nat. Landsch., 90, 497–502, 2015b.
Montanarella, L. and Panagos, P.: The relevance of sustainable soil management within the European Green Deal, Land Use Policy, 100, 104950, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104950, 2021.
Nilsson, M., Zamparutti, T., Petersen, J. E., Nykvist, B., Rudberg, P., and McGuinn, J.: Understanding Policy Coherence: Analytical Framework and Examples of Sector–Environment Policy Interactions in the EU, Environ. Policy Gov., 22, 395–423, https://doi.org/10.1002/eet.1589, 2012.
Panagos, P., Standardi, G., Borrelli, P., Lugato, E., Montanarella, L., and Bosello, F.: Cost of agricultural productivity loss due to soil erosion in the European Union: From direct cost evaluation approaches to the use of macroeconomic models, Land Degrad. Dev., 29, 471–484, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2879, 2018.
Pannell, D. J.: Public Benefits, Private Benefits, and Policy Mechanism Choice for Land-Use Change for Environmental Benefits, Land Econ., 84, 225–240, https://doi.org/10.3368/le.84.2.225, 2008.
Paul, C. and Helming, K.: Handbook of Soil-Related Impact Assessment, BonaRes Centre, 2019.
Pe'er, G., Zinngrebe, Y., Moreira, F., Sirami, C., Schindler, S., Müller, R., Bontzorlos, V., Clough, D., Bezák, P., Bonn, A., Hansjürgens, B., Lomba, A., Möckel, S., Passoni, G., Schleyer, C., Schmidt, J., and Lakner, S.: A greener path for the EU Common Agricultural Policy, Science, 365, 449–451, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax3146, 2019.
Pradhan, P., Costa, L., Rybski, D., Lucht, W., and Kropp, J. P.: A Systematic Study of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Interactions, Earths Future, 5, 1169–1179, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017EF000632, 2017.
Riediger, J., Breckling, B., Svoboda, N., and Schröder, W.: Modelling regional variability of irrigation requirements due to climate change in Northern Germany, Sci. Total Environ., 541, 329–340, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.043, 2016.
Ring, I. and Schröter-Schlaack, C.: Policy mixes for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service management, in: Ecosystem services – Concept, methods and case studies, edited by: Grunewald, K. and Bastian, O., Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 146–155, 2015.
Ronchi, S., Salata, S., Arcidiacono, A., Piroli, E., and Montanarella, L.: Policy instruments for soil protection among the EU member states: A comparative analysis, Land Use Policy, 82, 763–780, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.01.017, 2019.
Rose, M. T., Cavagnaro, T. R., Scanlan, C. A., Rose, T. J., Vancov, T., Kimber, S., Kennedy, I. R., Kookana, R. S., and Van Zwieten, L.: Impact of Herbicides on Soil Biology and Function, Adv. Agron., 136, 133–220, https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2015.11.005, 2016.
Rumpel, C., Amiraslani, F., Chenu, C., Garcia Cardenas, M., Kaonga, M., Koutika, L.-S., Ladha, J., Madari, B., Shirato, Y., Smith, P., Soudi, B., Soussana, J.-F., Whitehead, D., and Wollenberg, E.: The 4p1000 initiative: Opportunities, limitations and challenges for implementing soil organic carbon sequestration as a sustainable development strategy, Ambio, 49, 350–360, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01165-2, 2020.
Samaniego, L., Thober, S., Kumar, R., Wanders, N., Rakovec, O., Pan, M., Zink, M., Sheffield, J., Wood, E. F., and Marx, A.: Anthropogenic warming exacerbates European soil moisture droughts, Nat. Clim. Change, 8, 421–426, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0138-5, 2018.
Schaafsma, M. and Bartkowski, B.: Synergies and Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Services, in: Life on Land, edited by: Leal Filho, W., Azul, A. M., Brandli, L., Özuyar, P. G., and Wall, T., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71065-5_117-1, 2020.
Schader, C., Lampkin, N., Muller, A., and Stolze, M.: The role of multi-target policy instruments in agri-environmental policy mixes, J. Environ. Manage., 145, 180–190, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.06.016, 2014.
Schlager, E. and Ostrom, E.: Property-rights regimes and natural resources: A conceptual analysis, Land Econ., 68, 249–262, https://doi.org/10.2307/3146375, 1992.
Schröder, J. J., Ten Berge, H. F. M., Bampa, F., Creamer, R. E., Giraldez-Cervera, J. V., Henriksen, C. B., Olesen, J. E., Rutgers, M., Sandén, T., and Spiegel, H.: Multi-Functional Land Use Is Not Self-Evident for European Farmers: A Critical Review, Front. Environ. Sci., 8, 575466, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2020.575466, 2020.
Schröter-Schlaack, C. and Hansjürgens, B.: Fishing in muddy waters – Governance risks in designing policy responses to manage ecosystem services, in: Atlas of Ecosystem Services: Drivers, Risks, and Societal Responses, edited by: Schröter, M., Bonn, A., Klotz, S., Seppelt, R., and Baessler, C., Springer, Dordrecht; New York, 315–320, 2019.
Seppelt, R., Lautenbach, S., and Volk, M.: Identifying trade-offs between ecosystem services, land use, and biodiversity: a plea for combining scenario analysis and optimization on different spatial scales, Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain., 5, 458–463, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.05.002, 2013.
Siebert, L.: Energy Crops and Erosion Control in Germany in the Context of the Bioeconomy Strategy, BonaRes Ser., 2020/2, https://doi.org/10.20387/BonaRes-TZKG-FNRC, 2020.
Soule, M. J., Tegene, A., and Wiebe, K. D.: Land Tenure and the Adoption of Conservation Practices, Am. J. Agric. Econ., 82, 993–1005, 2000.
Stankovics, P., Tóth, G., and Tóth, Z.: Identifying Gaps between the Legislative Tools of Soil Protection in the EU Member States for a Common European Soil Protection Legislation, Sustainability, 10, 2886, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082886, 2018.
Techen, A.-K. and Helming, K.: Pressures on soil functions from soil management in Germany. A foresight review, Agron. Sustain. Dev., 37, 64, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-017-0473-3, 2017.
Techen, A.-K., Helming, K., Brüggemann, N., Veldkamp, E., Reinhold-Hurek, B., Lorenz, M., Bartke, S., Heinrich, U., Amelung, W., Augustin, K., Boy, J., Corre, M., Duttman, R., Gebbers, R., Gentsch, N., Grosch, R., Guggenberger, G., Kern, J., Kiese, R., Kuhwald, M., Leinweber, P., Schloter, M., Wiesmeier, M., Winkelmann, T., and Vogel, H.-J.: Soil research challenges in response to emerging agricultural soil management practices, Adv. Agron., 161, 179–240, https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2020.01.002, 2020.
Turpin, N., ten Berge, H., Grignani, C., Guzmán, G., Vanderlinden, K., Steinmann, H.-H., Siebielec, G., Spiegel, A., Perret, E., Ruysschaert, G., Laguna, A., Giráldez, J. V., Werner, M., Raschke, I., Zavattaro, L., Costamagna, C., Schlatter, N., Berthold, H., Sandén, T., and Baumgarten, A.: An assessment of policies affecting Sustainable Soil Management in Europe and selected member states, Land Use Policy, 66, 241–249, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.04.001, 2017.
Vainio, A., Tienhaara, A., Haltia, E., Hyvönen, T., Pyysiäinen, J., and Pouta, E.: The legitimacy of result-oriented and action-oriented agri-environmental schemes: A comparison of farmers' and citizens' perceptions, Land Use Policy, 107, 104358, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104358, 2021.
Vogel, H.-J., Bartke, S., Daedlow, K., Helming, K., Kögel-Knabner, I., Lang, B., Rabot, E., Russell, D., Stößel, B., Weller, U., Wiesmeier, M., and Wollschläger, U.: A systemic approach for modeling soil functions, SOIL, 4, 83–92, https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-4-83-2018, 2018.
Vogel, H.-J., Eberhardt, E., Franko, U., Lang, B., Ließ, M., Weller, U., Wiesmeier, M., and Wollschläger, U.: Quantitative Evaluation of Soil Functions: Potential and State, Front. Environ. Sci., 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2019.00164, 2019.
Vrebos, D., Bampa, F., Creamer, R. E., Gardi, C., Ghaley, B. B., Jones, A., Rutgers, M., Sandén, T., Staes, J., and Meire, P.: The Impact of Policy Instruments on Soil Multifunctionality in the European Union, Sustainability, 9, 407, https://doi.org/10.3390/su9030407, 2017.
Wiesmeier, M., Mayer, S., Paul, C., Helming, K., Don, A., Franko, U., Steffens, M., and Kögel-Knabner, I.: CO2 certificates for carbon sequestration in soils: methods, management practices and limitations, BonaRes Ser., 2020/3, https://doi.org/10.20387/BONARES-NE0G-CE98, 2020.
Zikeli, S. and Gruber, S.: Reduced Tillage and No-Till in Organic Farming Systems, Germany-Status Quo, Potentials and Challenges, Agriculture, 7, 35, https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7040035, 2017.
Zinngrebe, Y., Pe'er, G., Schueler, S., Schmitt, J., Schmidt, J., and Lakner, S.: The EU's ecological focus areas – How experts explain farmers' choices in Germany, Land Use Policy, 65, 93–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.03.027, 2017.
Zwetsloot, M. J., Leeuwen, J. van, Hemerik, L., Martens, H., Josa, I. S., Broek, M. V. de, Debeljak, M., Rutgers, M., Sandén, T., Wall, D. P., Jones, A., and Creamer, R. E.: Soil multifunctionality: Synergies and trade-offs across European climatic zones and land uses, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 72, 1640–1654, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13051, 2021.
We use a holistic framework to analyze how agricultural policy in Germany affects the sustainability of soil management. We look at the adequacy of policy targets, objects (i.e. drivers of soil degradation), instruments, assumptions about farmers' behaviour, and the coherence among these four dimensions. We find deficits in each dimension, particularly object and instrument adequacy. Agricultural soil policy in Germany lacks depth and coherence, and the role of biomass demand is neglected.
We use a holistic framework to analyze how agricultural policy in Germany affects the...