Articles | Volume 9, issue 1
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Soil depth as a driver of microbial and carbon dynamics in a planted forest (Pinus radiata) pumice soil
Loretta G. Garrett
Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, 3046, New Zealand
Scion, P.O. Box 29237, Riccarton, Christchurch, 8440, New Zealand
Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, 3046, New Zealand
Steve A. Wakelin
Scion, P.O. Box 29237, Riccarton, Christchurch, 8440, New Zealand
Related subject area
Soils and managed ecosystemsManaging soil organic carbon in tropical agroecosystems: evidence from four long-term experiments in KenyaImpact of contrasting fertilizer technologies on N dynamics from subsurface bands of “pure” or blended fertilizer applicationsWetting and drying cycles, organic amendments, and gypsum play a key role in structure formation and stability of sodic VertisolsQuality assessment of meta-analyses on soil organic carbonThe role of long-term mineral and manure fertilization on P species accumulation and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in paddy red soilsTransforming living labs into lighthouses: a promising policy to achieve land-related sustainable developmentThe QuantiSlakeTest, dynamic weighting of soil under water to measure soil structural stabilityWhat comes after the Sun? On the integration of soil biogeochemical pre-weathering into microplastic experimentsTransition to conservation agriculture: how tillage intensity and covering affect soil physical parametersCombining colour parameters and geochemical tracers to improve sediment source discrimination in a mining catchment (New Caledonia, South Pacific Islands)The effects of sealing on urban soil carbon and nutrientsApplication of the governance disruptions framework to German agricultural soil policyMiddle Bronze Age land use practices in the northwestern Alpine foreland – a multi-proxy study of colluvial deposits, archaeological features and peat bogsSpatial variability in heavy metal concentration in urban pavement joints – a case studyGlobal concentrations of microplastics in soils – a reviewUsing constructed soils for green infrastructure – challenges and limitationsEffects of microplastic and microglass particles on soil microbial community structure in an arable soil (Chernozem)Women's agricultural practices and their effects on soil nutrient content in the Nyalenda urban gardens of Kisumu, KenyaEffects of golf course management on subsurface soil properties in IowaLocal soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledgeHow Alexander von Humboldt's life story can inspire innovative soil research in developing countriesPaleosols can promote root growth of recent vegetation – a case study from the sandy soil–sediment sequence Rakt, the NetherlandsAn insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlandsThe impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes: a reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the central and southeastern NetherlandsSoil archives of a Fluvisol: subsurface analysis and soil history of the medieval city centre of Vlaardingen, the Netherlands – an integral approachEffect of grassland cutting frequency on soil carbon storage – a case study on public lawns in three Swedish citiesFacing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development GoalsThe significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development GoalsCase studies of soil in artEffects of fresh and aged chars from pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization on nutrient sorption in agricultural soilsSoil properties and pre-Columbian settlement patterns in the Monumental Mounds Region of the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian AmazonAn ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria
Moritz Laub, Marc Corbeels, Antoine Couëdel, Samuel Mathu Ndungu, Monicah Wanjiku Mucheru-Muna, Daniel Mugendi, Magdalena Necpalova, Wycliffe Waswa, Marijn Van de Broek, Bernard Vanlauwe, and Johan Six
SOIL, 9, 301–323,Short summary
In sub-Saharan Africa, long-term low-input maize cropping threatens soil fertility. We studied how different quality organic inputs combined with mineral N fertilizer could counteract this. Farmyard manure was the best input to counteract soil carbon loss; mineral N fertilizer had no effect on carbon. Yet, the rates needed to offset soil carbon losses are unrealistic for farmers (>10 t of dry matter per hectare and year). Additional agronomic measures may be needed.
Chelsea K. Janke and Michael J. Bell
SOIL, 9, 243–259,Short summary
Fertilizer blends of controlled release and stabilized nitrogen (N) demonstrated temporal N dynamics intermediate of unblended fertilizers. Soil characteristics had a significant impact on N dynamics and the efficacy of the differing enhanced efficiency fertilizer mechanisms to minimize potential N losses. Insights can improve N supply predictability, offering opportunities to improve N use efficiency in cropping systems.
Sara Niaz, J. Bernhard Wehr, Ram C. Dalal, Peter M. Kopittke, and Neal W. Menzies
SOIL, 9, 141–154,Short summary
Sodic soils affect ~580 Mha in semi-arid and arid regions of the world. These soils have a weak structure. This laboratory study evaluated treatments to overcome the weak aggregate structure in two sodic Vertisols by applying organic amendments, gypsum, and wetting–drying cycles. We conclude that sodic soils need to be treated with gypsum to flocculate clay and organic amendments (lucerne or chicken manure) to form aggregates, whereas drying cycles aid in small macroaggregates formation.
Julia Fohrafellner, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Rajasekaran Murugan, and Elena Valkama
SOIL, 9, 117–140,Short summary
The number of meta-analyses in agriculture and soil sciences is continuously rising, but they are often of poor quality. We quantitatively analyzed the quality of 31 meta-analyses studying the effects of different management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC). We found that only one meta-analysis on no tillage/reduced tillage obtained a high score. New or improved meta-analyses on the effects of organic agriculture, biochar, fertilization, and crop diversification on SOC are urgently needed.
Shuiqing Chen, Jusheng Gao, Huaihai Chen, Zeyuan Zhang, Jing Huang, Lefu Lv, Jinfang Tan, and Xiaoqian Jiang
SOIL, 9, 101–116,Short summary
Long-term inorganic P (IP) fertilization increased total P (TP), available P (AP) and IP, but manure fertilization accelerated the accumulation of organic P (OP). Long-term mineral fertilization had a negative impact on bacterial communities, while manure fertilization and rhizosphere soil provided more nutrients that improved the separation of bacterial communities. Correspondingly, P indicators such as IP and TP were related to the variation in a phosphate-solubilizing bacterial community.
SOIL, 8, 751–759,Short summary
In the new
Soil Deal for Europe, land users, mostly farmers, and scientists are required to work jointly in
living labsto develop sustainable land use systems. We propose that threshold values for different ecosystem services in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the EU Green Deal (GD) have to be met to define
lighthousesthat demonstrate successful sustainable land use systems, functioning as inspiring examples. A case study illustrates the important role of soils.
Frédéric M. Vanwindekens and Brieuc F. Hardy
Structural stability is critical for sustainable agricultural soil management. We invented a simple test to measure soil structural stability. The QuantiSlakeTest consists in a dynamic weighting of a dried soil sample in water.The test is rapid, doesn’t require expensive equipment and provides a high density of information on soil structural properties. With an open access program for data management under development, the test has a strong potential for adoption by a large community of users.
Frederick Büks and Martin Kaupenjohann
SOIL, 8, 373–380,Short summary
The adverse effect of microplastic (MP) on soil biota and soil structure depends on MP particle size and surface characteristics. Since weathering plays a major role in the genesis of these, it must be considered in both the analysis of environmental MP and the production of artificial MP for laboratory experiments. This work integrates recent findings on adverse effects and the genesis of its surface characteristics and discusses how to reproduce them to obtain closer-to-nature designer MP.
Felice Sartori, Ilaria Piccoli, Riccardo Polese, and Antonio Berti
SOIL, 8, 213–222,Short summary
This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of the transition from conventional to conservation agriculture on soil physical properties, by determining the best soil tillage and covering combination, to exploit the benefits of conservation agriculture from the first conversion years. The results proved that, despite an increase in bulk density and penetration resistance, soil under reduced tillage systems with a cover crop improved its hydraulic properties.
Virginie Sellier, Oldrich Navratil, John Patrick Laceby, Cédric Legout, Anthony Foucher, Michel Allenbach, Irène Lefèvre, and Olivier Evrard
SOIL, 7, 743–766,Short summary
Open-cast mining increases soil erosion and transfer of sediment in river systems. Providing a methodology to better understand the sediment dynamic of these catchments is essential to manage this pollution. In this study, different tracers such as elemental geochemistry or colour properties were tested to trace and quantify the mining source contributions to the sediment inputs in the Thio River catchment, one of the first areas exploited for nickel mining in New Caledonia (i.e. since 1880).
Roisin O'Riordan, Jess Davies, Carly Stevens, and John N. Quinton
SOIL, 7, 661–675,Short summary
As urban populations grow, soil sealing with impermeable surfaces will increase. At present there is limited knowledge on the effect of sealing on soil carbon and nutrients. We found that, in general, sealing reduced soil carbon and nutrients; however, where there were additions due to human activity, soil carbon and nutrients were increased. This suggests that there is a legacy soil carbon store in areas with an industrial past and highlights the influence of artefacts in urban soil.
Bartosz Bartkowski, Stephan Bartke, Nina Hagemann, Bernd Hansjürgens, and Christoph Schröter-Schlaack
SOIL, 7, 495–509,Short summary
We use a holistic framework to analyze how agricultural policy in Germany affects the sustainability of soil management. We look at the adequacy of policy targets, objects (i.e. drivers of soil degradation), instruments, assumptions about farmers' behaviour, and the coherence among these four dimensions. We find deficits in each dimension, particularly object and instrument adequacy. Agricultural soil policy in Germany lacks depth and coherence, and the role of biomass demand is neglected.
Sascha Scherer, Benjamin Höpfer, Katleen Deckers, Elske Fischer, Markus Fuchs, Ellen Kandeler, Jutta Lechterbeck, Eva Lehndorff, Johanna Lomax, Sven Marhan, Elena Marinova, Julia Meister, Christian Poll, Humay Rahimova, Manfred Rösch, Kristen Wroth, Julia Zastrow, Thomas Knopf, Thomas Scholten, and Peter Kühn
SOIL, 7, 269–304,Short summary
This paper aims to reconstruct Middle Bronze Age (MBA) land use practices in the northwestern Alpine foreland (SW Germany, Hegau). We used a multi-proxy approach including biogeochemical proxies from colluvial deposits in the surroundings of a MBA settlement, on-site archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological data and off-site pollen data. From our data we infer land use practices such as plowing, cereal growth, forest farming and use of fire that marked the beginning of major colluvial deposition.
Collin J. Weber, Alexander Santowski, and Peter Chifflard
SOIL, 7, 15–31,Short summary
Pavement joints, defined as the joint between paving stones and filled with different materials, in the inner city area of Marburg (Hesse, Germany) show moderate to high pollution with different heavy metals. Enrichment of heavy metals in pavement joints is related to surface run-off accumulation. As the pollution of pavement joints poses direct risks to the environment and humans in urban areas, the inconspicuous joints should be considered in urban water management strategies.
Frederick Büks and Martin Kaupenjohann
SOIL, 6, 649–662,Short summary
Laboratory experiments that assess microplastic (MP) impact on the terrestrial environment require information on common soil MP concentrations. We reviewed item numbers and mass concentrations recorded in 23 studies, with 223 sampling sites in total with respect to the underlying entry pathways, land uses and vicinities. Common values included amounts of up to 13 000 items kg−1 and 4.5 mg kg−1 dry soil. Based on the collected data, we identified problems in past field studies.
Maha Deeb, Peter M. Groffman, Manuel Blouin, Sara Perl Egendorf, Alan Vergnes, Viacheslav Vasenev, Donna L. Cao, Daniel Walsh, Tatiana Morin, and Geoffroy Séré
SOIL, 6, 413–434,Short summary
The goal of this study was to discuss current methods to create soils adapted for various green infrastructure (GI) designs. Investigating these new soils for several design categories of GI will provide technical information for management and design agencies. Moreover, these studies can serve as pioneer experiments to prevent recurring errors and, thus, provide improved plant growth practices. Results show that these constructed soils have a high potential to provide multiple soil functions.
Katja Wiedner and Steven Polifka
SOIL, 6, 315–324,Short summary
Microplastics and microglass are used in a wide range of everyday and industrial applications acting as abrasives, filler and binding agents, which could enter aquatic and terrestrial environments with unexpected consequences for ecosystems. Our study suggests that different types of microparticles seem to have contrary effects on soil microorganisms, depending on the origin and properties of microparticles. This study should be seen as basis for further research, which is urgently needed.
Nicolette Tamara Regina Johanna Maria Jonkman, Esmee Daniëlle Kooijman, Karsten Kalbitz, Nicky Rosa Maria Pouw, and Boris Jansen
SOIL, 5, 303–313,Short summary
In the urban gardens of Kisumu we interviewed female farmers to determine the sources and scope of their agricultural knowledge. We assessed the impact of the knowledge by comparing the influence of two types of management on soil nutrients. While one type of management was more effective in terms of preserving soil nutrients, the other management type had socioeconomic benefits. Both environmental and socioeconomic effects have to be considered in agricultural training to increase their impact.
Matthew T. Streeter and Keith E. Schilling
SOIL, 4, 93–100,Short summary
Iowa golf courses provide an ideal location to evaluate whether golf course management is affecting the quality of soils at depth. Our study evaluated how soil properties relating to soil health and resiliency varied with depth at golf courses across Iowa and interpreted relationships of these properties to current golf course management and inherent soil properties. Systematic variation in soil properties including sand content, NO3, and SOM was observed with depth.
Brice Prudat, Lena Bloemertz, and Nikolaus J. Kuhn
SOIL, 4, 47–62,Short summary
Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Having tools to assess soil quality is important to evaluate soil conditions and helps targeting important issues. We developed a soil evaluation toolbox that integrates farmers' field experiences and technical knowledge. The combination of local soil descriptions, field soil texture evaluation and soil colour provides locally meaningful information that reveals soil quality improvement potentials.
SOIL, 3, 153–159,Short summary
Alexander von Humboldt was an inspiring scientist in the early 1800s, traveling widely, making many measurements, and linking different scientific disciplines while keeping an eye open to the needs of society. This is particularly relevant today in our information society, and researchers in developing countries are advised to follow the von Humboldt example when planning their future research.
Martina I. Gocke, Fabian Kessler, Jan M. van Mourik, Boris Jansen, and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
SOIL, 2, 537–549,Short summary
Investigation of a Dutch sandy profile demonstrated that buried soils provide beneficial growth conditions for plant roots in terms of nutrients. The intense exploitation of deep parts of the soil profile, including subsoil and soil parent material, by roots of the modern vegetation is often underestimated by traditional approaches. Potential consequences of deep rooting for terrestrial carbon stocks, located to a relevant part in buried soils, remain largely unknown and require further studies.
Leonor Rodrigues, Umberto Lombardo, Mareike Trauerstein, Perrine Huber, Sandra Mohr, and Heinz Veit
SOIL, 2, 367–389,Short summary
Our study examines pre-Columbian agricultural raised fields in the Bolivian Amazon. It provides a new interpretation for pre-Columbian management of raised fields. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100–200 years.
Marieke Doorenbosch and Jan M. van Mourik
SOIL, 2, 311–324,Short summary
Soil records provide information about 5 millennia of heath management in cultural landscapes on sandy soils. Deforestations and the introduction of the deep, stable economy in the 18th century resulted in sand drifting and heath degradation. After the introduction of chemical fertilizers more than 90 % of the heaths were transformed into productive arable field or forests. Currently the last heaths are preserved as part of the cultural heritage.
Sjoerd Kluiving, Tim de Ridder, Marcel van Dasselaar, Stan Roozen, and Maarten Prins
SOIL, 2, 271–285,Short summary
In medieval times the city of Vlaardingen (the Netherlands) was strategically located on the confluence of three rivers, the Maas, the Merwede, and the Vlaarding. Combined research on the history and soil of this city was initiated by an archaeological research question, following Dutch legislation. The start of fluvial system 2 in AD 600 correlates with evidence of the church that was present at least in AD 726/727. Results record the period before and after the flooding in AD 1170.
C. Poeplau, H. Marstorp, K. Thored, and T. Kätterer
SOIL, 2, 175–184,Short summary
We compared two long-term contrasting systems of urban lawn management (frequently cut utility lawn vs. seldomly cut meadow-like lawn) regarding their effect on soil carbon in three Swedish cities. Biomass production was also measured during 1 year. The utility lawns had a significantly higher biomass production, which resulted in a higher soil carbon storage, since clippings were not removed. Soil carbon sequestration outweighed the higher management-related CO2 emissions of the utility lawns.
Johan Bouma and Luca Montanarella
SOIL, 2, 135–145,Short summary
The recently accepted UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a major challenge to the research community, including soil science. SDGs require a interdisciplinary research approach that forces every discipline to critically evaluate its core messages. Effective communication with the policy arena requires use of common policy concepts such as policy phases and distinction of drivers, pressures, and responses to change. To accomodate such needs, research practices will have to change.
Saskia D. Keesstra, Johan Bouma, Jakob Wallinga, Pablo Tittonell, Pete Smith, Artemi Cerdà, Luca Montanarella, John N. Quinton, Yakov Pachepsky, Wim H. van der Putten, Richard D. Bardgett, Simon Moolenaar, Gerben Mol, Boris Jansen, and Louise O. Fresco
SOIL, 2, 111–128,Short summary
Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has links to several of the UN Sustainable Development Goals which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and related ecosystem services. We discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally and externally in terms of our relations with colleagues in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the set of steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole.
C. Feller, E. R. Landa, A. Toland, and G. Wessolek
SOIL, 1, 543–559,Short summary
Case studies of artworks focused on painting, installation, and film are presented, with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil, as a contribution to raising soil awareness.
M. Gronwald, A. Don, B. Tiemeyer, and M. Helfrich
SOIL, 1, 475–489,
U. Lombardo, S. Denier, and H. Veit
SOIL, 1, 65–81,Short summary
In the present paper we explore to what degree soil properties might have influenced pre-Columbian settlement patterns in the Monumental Mounds Region (MMR) of the Llanos de Moxos (LM), Bolivian Amazon. This study provides new data on the soil properties of the south-eastern Bolivian Amazon and reinforces the hypothesis that environmental constraints and opportunities exerted an important role on pre-Columbian occupation patterns and the population density reached in the Bolivian Amazon.
J. P. van Leeuwen, T. Lehtinen, G. J. Lair, J. Bloem, L. Hemerik, K. V. Ragnarsdóttir, G. Gísladóttir, J. S. Newton, and P. C. de Ruiter
SOIL, 1, 83–101,
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Forest soils store large amounts of carbon (C), but research has remained focused on C storage in topsoil layers. We investigated changes in forest soil C storage and microbial ecology to 1 m depth. Though absolute soil C content, microbial diversity and microbial biomass declined sharply with depth, 35 % of total soil C was cumulatively stored in subsoil layers. Our findings highlight the importance of including subsoils when calculating the C storage capacity of forest systems.
Forest soils store large amounts of carbon (C), but research has remained focused on C storage...