Articles | Volume 4, issue 1
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Saturated and unsaturated salt transport in peat from a constructed fen
Reuven B. Simhayov
Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
Tobias K. D. Weber
Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
Soil Science and Soil Physics Division, Institute of Geoecology, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
now at: Institute for Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Biogeophysics, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Straße 27, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
Jonathan S. Price
Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
No articles found.
Florian Späth, Verena Rajtschan, Tobias K. D. Weber, Shehan Morandage, Diego Lange, Syed Saqlain Abbas, Andreas Behrendt, Joachim Ingwersen, Thilo Streck, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 12, 25–44,Short summary
Important topics in land–atmosphere feedback research are water and energy balances and heterogeneities of fluxes at the land surface and in the atmosphere. To target these questions, the Land–Atmosphere Feedback Observatory (LAFO) has been installed in Germany. The instrumentation allows for comprehensive measurements from the bedrock to the troposphere. The LAFO observation strategy aims for simultaneous measurements in all three compartments: atmosphere, soil and land surface, and vegetation.
Benjamin Guillaume, Hanane Aroui Boukbida, Gerben Bakker, Andrzej Bieganowski, Yves Brostaux, Wim Cornelis, Wolfgang Durner, Christian Hartmann, Bo V. Iversen, Mathieu Javaux, Joachim Ingwersen, Krzysztof Lamorski, Axel Lamparter, András Makó, Ana María Mingot Soriano, Ingmar Messing, Attila Nemes, Alexandre Pomes-Bordedebat, Martine van der Ploeg, Tobias Weber Karl David, Lutz Weihermüller, Joost Wellens, and Aurore Degré
Measurements of soil water retention properties play an important role in a variety of societal issues that depend on soil-water conditions. However, there is little concern about the consistency of these measurements between laboratories. We conducted an interlaboratory comparison to assess the reproducibility of the measurement of the soil water retention curve. Results highlight the need to harmonize and standardize procedures to improve the description of unsaturated processes in soils.
Michelle Viswanathan, Tobias K. D. Weber, Sebastian Gayler, Juliane Mai, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 19, 2187–2209,Short summary
We analysed the evolution of model parameter uncertainty and prediction error as we updated parameters of a maize phenology model based on yearly observations, by sequentially applying Bayesian calibration. Although parameter uncertainty was reduced, prediction quality deteriorated when calibration and prediction data were from different maize ripening groups or temperature conditions. The study highlights that Bayesian methods should account for model limitations and inherent data structures.
Tobias K. D. Weber, Joachim Ingwersen, Petra Högy, Arne Poyda, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Michael Scott Demyan, Kristina Bohm, Ravshan Eshonkulov, Sebastian Gayler, Pascal Kremer, Moritz Laub, Yvonne Funkiun Nkwain, Christian Troost, Irene Witte, Tim Reichenau, Thomas Berger, Georg Cadisch, Torsten Müller, Andreas Fangmeier, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Thilo Streck
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1153–1181,Short summary
Presented are measurement results from six agricultural fields operated by local farmers in southwestern Germany over 9 years. Six eddy-covariance stations measuring water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the vegetated soil surface and the atmosphere provided the backbone of the measurement sites and were supplemented by extensive soil and vegetation state monitoring. The dataset is ideal for testing process models characterizing fluxes at the vegetated soil surface and in the atmosphere.
Brigitta Szabó, Melanie Weynants, and Tobias K. D. Weber
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 151–175,Short summary
This paper presents updated European prediction algorithms (euptf2) to compute soil hydraulic parameters from easily available soil properties. The new algorithms lead to significantly better predictions and provide a built-in prediction uncertainty computation. The influence of predictor variables on predicted soil hydraulic properties is explored and practical guidance on how to use the derived PTFs is provided. A website and an R package facilitate easy application of the updated predictions.
Ravshan Eshonkulov, Arne Poyda, Joachim Ingwersen, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Tobias K. D. Weber, Pascal Kremer, Petra Högy, Alim Pulatov, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 16, 521–540,Short summary
We compared the energy balance closure (EBC) under varying environmental conditions and investigated a wide range of possible reasons for the energy imbalance. As measures for the imbalance, we used ordinary linear regression, the energy balance ratio (EBR), and the energy residual. The EBR was also investigated as a function of buoyancy, friction velocity, and atmospheric stability. Moreover, the relationship between the EBC and flux source area or footprint was also investigated.
Matthew C. Elmes, Dan K. Thompson, James H. Sherwood, and Jonathan S. Price
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 157–170,Short summary
The infrequent coinciding of several hydrometeorological conditions common to the Western Boreal Plain, including low autumn soil moisture, modest snowpack, lack of spring precipitation, and high spring air temperatures and winds, ultimately led to the widespread Horse river fire in May of 2016. Monitoring antecedent soil moisture would aid management strategies in producing of more accurate overwintered Drought Code calculations, providing early warning signals ahead of spring wildfire seasons.
Tobias Karl David Weber, Sascha Christian Iden, and Wolfgang Durner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6185–6200,
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Soils and waterPotential of natural language processing for metadata extraction from environmental scientific publicationsSoil and crop management practices and the water regulation functions of soils: a qualitative synthesis of meta-analyses relevant to European agricultureEffects of innovative long-term soil and crop management on topsoil properties of a Mediterranean soil based on detailed water retention curvesPolyester microplastic fibers affect soil physical properties and erosion as a function of soil typeModelling the effect of catena position and hydrology on soil chemical weatheringLong-term impact of cover crop and reduced disturbance tillage on soil pore size distribution and soil water storageEffective hydraulic properties of 3D virtual stony soils identified by inverse modelingBiochar alters hydraulic conductivity and impacts nutrient leaching in two agricultural soilsImpact of freeze–thaw cycles on soil structure and soil hydraulic propertiesAdded value of geophysics-based soil mapping in agro-ecosystem simulationsParticulate macronutrient exports from tropical African montane catchments point to the impoverishment of agricultural soilsA review of the global soil property maps for Earth system modelsSensitivity analysis of point and parametric pedotransfer functions for estimating water retention of soils in AlgeriaWater in the critical zone: soil, water and life from profile to planetDeriving pedotransfer functions for soil quartz fraction in southern France from reverse modelingMorphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian Highlands: the Debre Mawi watershedCharacterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experimentsQuantification of the impact of hydrology on agricultural production as a result of too dry, too wet or too saline conditionsSediment concentration rating curves for a monsoonal climate: upper Blue NileNonstationarity of the electrical resistivity and soil moisture relationship in a heterogeneous soil system: a case studyInteractions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural propertiesPotential effects of vinasse as a soil amendment to control runoff and soil lossQuantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mined landsCoupled cellular automata for frozen soil processes
Guillaume Blanchy, Lukas Albrecht, John Koestel, and Sarah Garré
SOIL, 9, 155–168,Short summary
Adapting agricultural practices to future climatic conditions requires us to synthesize the effects of management practices on soil properties with respect to local soil and climate. We showcase different automated text-processing methods to identify topics, extract metadata for building a database and summarize findings from publication abstracts. While human intervention remains essential, these methods show great potential to support evidence synthesis from large numbers of publications.
Guillaume Blanchy, Gilberto Bragato, Claudia Di Bene, Nicholas Jarvis, Mats Larsbo, Katharina Meurer, and Sarah Garré
SOIL, 9, 1–20,Short summary
European agriculture is vulnerable to weather extremes. Nevertheless, by choosing well how to manage their land, farmers can protect themselves against drought and peak rains. More than a thousand observations across Europe show that it is important to keep the soil covered with living plants, even in winter. A focus on a general reduction of traffic on agricultural land is more important than reducing tillage. Organic material needs to remain or be added on the field as much as possible.
Alaitz Aldaz-Lusarreta, Rafael Giménez, Miguel A. Campo-Bescós, Luis M. Arregui, and Iñigo Virto
SOIL, 8, 655–671,Short summary
This study shows how an innovative soil and crop management including no-tillage, cover crops and organic amendments is able to improve the topsoil physical quality compared to conventional management for rainfed cereal cropping in a semi-arid Mediterranean area in Navarre (Spain).
Rosolino Ingraffia, Gaetano Amato, Vincenzo Bagarello, Francesco G. Carollo, Dario Giambalvo, Massimo Iovino, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C. Rillig, and Alfonso S. Frenda
SOIL, 8, 421–435,Short summary
The presence of microplastics in soil environments has received increased attention, but little research exists on the effects on different soil types and soil water erosion. We performed two experiments on the effects of polyester microplastic fiber on soil properties, soil aggregation, and soil erosion in three agricultural soils. Results showed that polyester microplastic fibers affect the formation of new aggregates and soil erosion and that such effects are strongly dependent on soil type.
Vanesa García-Gamero, Tom Vanwalleghem, Adolfo Peña, Andrea Román-Sánchez, and Peter A. Finke
SOIL, 8, 319–335,Short summary
Short-scale soil variability has received much less attention than at the regional scale. The chemical depletion fraction (CDF), a proxy for chemical weathering, was measured and simulated with SoilGen along two opposite slopes in southern Spain. The results show that differences in CDF could not be explained by topography alone but by hydrological parameters. The model sensitivity test shows the maximum CDF value for intermediate precipitation has similar findings to other soil properties.
Samuel N. Araya, Jeffrey P. Mitchell, Jan W. Hopmans, and Teamrat A. Ghezzehei
SOIL, 8, 177–198,Short summary
We studied the long-term effects of no-till (NT) and winter cover cropping (CC) practices on soil hydraulic properties. We measured soil water retention and conductivity and also conducted numerical simulations to compare soil water storage abilities under the different systems. Soils under NT and CC practices had improved soil structure. Conservation agriculture practices showed marginal improvement with respect to infiltration rates and water storage.
Mahyar Naseri, Sascha C. Iden, and Wolfgang Durner
SOIL, 8, 99–112,Short summary
We simulated stony soils with low to high volumes of rock fragments in 3D using evaporation and multistep unit-gradient experiments. Hydraulic properties of virtual stony soils were identified under a wide range of soil matric potentials. The developed models for scaling the hydraulic conductivity of stony soils were evaluated under unsaturated flow conditions.
Danielle L. Gelardi, Irfan H. Ainuddin, Devin A. Rippner, Janis E. Patiño, Majdi Abou Najm, and Sanjai J. Parikh
SOIL, 7, 811–825,Short summary
Biochar is purported to alter soil water dynamics and reduce nutrient loss when added to soils, though the mechanisms are often unexplored. We studied the ability of seven biochars to alter the soil chemical and physical environment. The flow of ammonium through biochar-amended soil was determined to be controlled through chemical affinity, and nitrate, to a lesser extent, through physical entrapment. These data will assist land managers in choosing biochars for specific agricultural outcomes.
Frederic Leuther and Steffen Schlüter
SOIL, 7, 179–191,Short summary
Freezing and thawing cycles are an important agent of soil structural transformation during the winter season in the mid-latitudes. This study shows that it promotes a well-connected pore system, fragments dense soil clods, and, hence, increases the unsaturated conductivity by a factor of 3. The results are important for predicting the structure formation and hydraulic properties of soils, with the prospect of milder winters due to climate change, and for farmers preparing the seedbed in spring.
Cosimo Brogi, Johan A. Huisman, Lutz Weihermüller, Michael Herbst, and Harry Vereecken
SOIL, 7, 125–143,Short summary
There is a need in agriculture for detailed soil maps that carry quantitative information. Geophysics-based soil maps have the potential to deliver such products, but their added value has not been fully investigated yet. In this study, we compare the use of a geophysics-based soil map with the use of two commonly available maps as input for crop growth simulations. The geophysics-based product results in better simulations, with improvements that depend on precipitation, soil, and crop type.
Jaqueline Stenfert Kroese, John N. Quinton, Suzanne R. Jacobs, Lutz Breuer, and Mariana C. Rufino
SOIL, 7, 53–70,Short summary
Particulate macronutrient concentrations were up to 3-fold higher in a natural forest catchment compared to fertilized agricultural catchments. Although the particulate macronutrient concentrations were lower in the smallholder agriculture catchment, because of higher sediment loads from that catchment, the total particulate macronutrient loads were higher. Land management practices should be focused on agricultural land to reduce the loss of soil carbon and nutrients to the stream.
Yongjiu Dai, Wei Shangguan, Nan Wei, Qinchuan Xin, Hua Yuan, Shupeng Zhang, Shaofeng Liu, Xingjie Lu, Dagang Wang, and Fapeng Yan
SOIL, 5, 137–158,Short summary
Soil data are widely used in various Earth science fields. We reviewed soil property maps for Earth system models, which can also offer insights to soil data developers and users. Old soil datasets are often based on limited observations and have various uncertainties. Updated and comprehensive soil data are made available to the public and can benefit related research. Good-quality soil data are identified and suggestions on how to improve and use them are provided.
Sami Touil, Aurore Degre, and Mohamed Nacer Chabaca
SOIL, 2, 647–657,
M. J. Kirkby
SOIL, 2, 631–645,Short summary
The review paper surveys the state of the art with respect to water in the critical zone, taking a broad view that concentrates on the global range of natural soils, identifying some areas of currently active research.
Jean-Christophe Calvet, Noureddine Fritz, Christine Berne, Bruno Piguet, William Maurel, and Catherine Meurey
SOIL, 2, 615–629,Short summary
Soil thermal conductivity in wet conditions can be retrieved together with the soil quartz content using a reverse modelling technique based on sub-hourly soil temperature observations at three depths below the soil surface. A pedotransfer function is proposed for quartz, for the considered region in France. Gravels have a major impact on soil thermal conductivity, and omitting the soil organic matter information tends to enhance this impact.
Assefa D. Zegeye, Eddy J. Langendoen, Cathelijne R. Stoof, Seifu A. Tilahun, Dessalegn C. Dagnew, Fasikaw A. Zimale, Christian D. Guzman, Birru Yitaferu, and Tammo S. Steenhuis
SOIL, 2, 443–458,Short summary
Gully erosion rehabilitation programs in the humid Ethiopian highlands have not been effective, because the gully formation process and its controlling factors are not well understood. In this manuscript, the severity of gully erosion (onsite and offsite effect), the most controlling factors (e.g., ground water elevation) for gully formation, and their arresting mechanisms are discussed in detail. Most data were collected from the detailed measurements of 13 representative gullies.
Eléonore Beckers, Mathieu Pichault, Wanwisa Pansak, Aurore Degré, and Sarah Garré
SOIL, 2, 421–431,Short summary
Determining the behaviour of stony soils with respect to infiltration and storage of water is of major importance, since stony soils are widespread across the globe. The most common procedure to overcome this difficulty is to describe the hydraulic characteristics of a stony soils in terms of the fine fraction of soil corrected for the volume of stones present. Our study suggests that considering this hypothesis might be ill-founded, especially for saturated soils.
Mirjam J. D. Hack-ten Broeke, Joop G. Kroes, Ruud P. Bartholomeus, Jos C. van Dam, Allard J. W. de Wit, Iwan Supit, Dennis J. J. Walvoort, P. Jan T. van Bakel, and Rob Ruijtenberg
SOIL, 2, 391–402,Short summary
For calculating the effects of hydrological measures on agricultural production in the Netherlands a new comprehensive and climate proof method is being developed: WaterVision Agriculture (in Dutch: Waterwijzer Landbouw). End users have asked for a method that considers current and future climate, which can quantify the differences between years and also the effects of extreme weather events.
Mamaru A. Moges, Fasikaw A. Zemale, Muluken L. Alemu, Getaneh K. Ayele, Dessalegn C. Dagnew, Seifu A. Tilahun, and Tammo S. Steenhuis
SOIL, 2, 337–349,Short summary
In tropical monsoonal Africa, sediment concentration data in rivers are lacking. Using occasional historically observed sediment loads, we developed a simple method for prediction sediment concentrations. Unlike previous methods, our techniques take into account that sediment concentrations decrease with the progression of the monsoon rains. With more testing, the developed method could improve sediment predictions in monsoonal climates.
Didier Michot, Zahra Thomas, and Issifou Adam
SOIL, 2, 241–255,Short summary
This study focuses on temporal and spatial soil moisture changes along a toposequence crossed by a hedgerow, using ERT and occasional measurements. We found that the relationship between ER and soil moisture had two behaviors depending on soil heterogeneities. ER values were consistent with occasional measurements outside the root zone. The shift in this relationship was controlled by root system density and a particular topographical context in the proximity of the hedgerow.
Maha Deeb, Michel Grimaldi, Thomas Z. Lerch, Anne Pando, Agnès Gigon, and Manuel Blouin
SOIL, 2, 163–174,Short summary
This paper addresses the evolution of engineered soils (i.e., Technosols). The formation of such soils begins with proportional mixing of urban waste. Technosols are particularly well suited for investigating the role of organisms in soil function development. This is because they provide a controlled environment where the soil development can be monitored over time. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affect the structure of Technosols.
Z. Hazbavi and S. H. R. Sadeghi
SOIL, 2, 71–78,Short summary
This study evaluates the influences of vinasse waste of sugarcane industries on runoff and soil loss at small plot scale. Laboratory results indicated that the vinasse at different levels could not significantly (P > 0.05) decrease the runoff amounts and soil loss rates in the study plots compared to untreated plots. The average amounts of minimum runoff volume and soil loss were about 3985 mL and 46 g for the study plot at a 1 L m−2 level of vinasse application.
S. Arnold and E. R. Williams
SOIL, 2, 41–48,Short summary
Soil water models are used to design cover systems for containing hazardous waste following mining. Often, soil invertebrates are omitted from these calculations, despite playing a major role in soil development (nutrient cycling) and water pathways (seepage, infiltration). As such, soil invertebrates can influence the success of waste cover systems. We propose that experiments in glasshouses, laboratories and field trials on mined lands be undertaken to provide knowledge for these models.
R. M. Nagare, P. Bhattacharya, J. Khanna, and R. A. Schincariol
SOIL, 1, 103–116,
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Lab experiments were performed to understand solute transport in peat from an experimental fen. Transport was analyzed under saturated and unsaturated conditions using NaCl (salt). We tested the applicability of a physical-based model which finds a wide consensus vs. alternative models. Evidence indicated that Cl transport can be explained using a simple transport model. Hence, use of the physical transport mechanism in peat should be evidence based and not automatically assumed.
Lab experiments were performed to understand solute transport in peat from an experimental fen....