Articles | Volume 5, issue 2
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Evaluating the carbon sequestration potential of volcanic soils in southern Iceland after birch afforestation
Department of Environmental Sciences, Physical Geography and Environmental Change, Klingelbergstrasse 27, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, Iceland
Nikolaus J. Kuhn
Department of Environmental Sciences, Physical Geography and Environmental Change, Klingelbergstrasse 27, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
No articles found.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Claudia Di Biagio, Gongda Lu, Congbo Song, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, David Beddows, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7975–8000,Short summary
This paper presents new shortwave spectral complex refractive index and single scattering albedo data for Icelandic dust. Our results show that the imaginary part of the complex refractive index of Icelandic dust is at the upper end of the range of low-latitude dust. Furthermore, we observed that Icelandic dust is more absorbing towards the near-infrared, which we attribute to its high magnetite content. These findings are important for modeling dust aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic.
Outi Meinander, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavel Amosov, Elena Aseyeva, Cliff Atkins, Alexander Baklanov, Clarissa Baldo, Sarah L. Barr, Barbara Barzycka, Liane G. Benning, Bojan Cvetkovic, Polina Enchilik, Denis Frolov, Santiago Gassó, Konrad Kandler, Nikolay Kasimov, Jan Kavan, James King, Tatyana Koroleva, Viktoria Krupskaya, Markku Kulmala, Monika Kusiak, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Michał Laska, Jerome Lasne, Marek Lewandowski, Bartłomiej Luks, James B. McQuaid, Beatrice Moroni, Benjamin Murray, Ottmar Möhler, Adam Nawrot, Slobodan Nickovic, Norman T. O’Neill, Goran Pejanovic, Olga Popovicheva, Keyvan Ranjbar, Manolis Romanias, Olga Samonova, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Kerstin Schepanski, Ivan Semenkov, Anna Sharapova, Elena Shevnina, Zongbo Shi, Mikhail Sofiev, Frédéric Thevenet, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Mikhail Timofeev, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Andreas Uppstu, Darya Urupina, György Varga, Tomasz Werner, Olafur Arnalds, and Ana Vukovic Vimic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11889–11930,Short summary
High-latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant, and nutrient source. Our results suggest a northern HLD belt at 50–58° N in Eurasia and 50–55° N in Canada and at >60° N in Eurasia and >58° N in Canada. Our addition to the previously identified global dust belt (GDB) provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
Brice Prudat, Wolfgang Fister, Lena Bloemertz, Juliane Krenz, and Nikolaus J. Kuhn
Geogr. Helv., 77, 39–51,Short summary
Soil quality depends on water availability for plants. Sandy soils with a poorly permeable layer (fragipan) are considered inept for agriculture. However they are cultivated in Namibia as they secure a minimum harvest during droughts. In order to understand the hydrological influence of fragipans in these soils, soil moisture content was measured. The results illustrate that the combination of sandy topsoil and shallow fragipan has beneficial effects on plant-available water during dry periods.
Philip Greenwood, Jan Bauer, and Nikolaus J. Kuhn
Geogr. Helv., 76, 319–333,Short summary
Soil erosion by wind and water is a commonly recognized phenomenon on agricultural land. Erosion in forests is studied less and generally considered to be limited because of the soil protection by vegetation. However, trees, when toppled because of old age or wind, loosen a considerable amount of soil when their roots are pulled from the ground. In addition, the holes left in the ground act as collectors for water and concentrated runoff, causing significant soil loss on forested slopes.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Wolfgang Fister, Nina Goldman, Marius Mayer, Manuel Suter, and Nikolaus J. Kuhn
Geogr. Helv., 74, 81–91,
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Vladimir R. Wingate, Nikolaus J. Kuhn, Stuart R. Phinn, and Cornelis van der Waal
Manuscript not accepted for further review
Brice Prudat, Lena Bloemertz, and Nikolaus J. Kuhn
SOIL, 4, 47–62,Short summary
Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Having tools to assess soil quality is important to evaluate soil conditions and helps targeting important issues. We developed a soil evaluation toolbox that integrates farmers' field experiences and technical knowledge. The combination of local soil descriptions, field soil texture evaluation and soil colour provides locally meaningful information that reveals soil quality improvement potentials.
Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Ólafur Arnalds, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Sabine Eckhardt, Joseph M. Prospero, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10865–10878,Short summary
How much dust do Icelandic sources emit and where is this dust deposited? We modelled dust emission and transport from Icelandic sources over 27 years with FLEXPART. Results show that Icelandic dust sources can have emission rates similar to parts of the Sahara and considerable amounts of dust are deposited in the ocean and on glaciers.
Monika Wittmann, Christine Dorothea Groot Zwaaftink, Louise Steffensen Schmidt, Sverrir Guðmundsson, Finnur Pálsson, Olafur Arnalds, Helgi Björnsson, Throstur Thorsteinsson, and Andreas Stohl
The Cryosphere, 11, 741–754,Short summary
This work includes a study on the effects of dust deposition on the mass balance of Brúarjökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, Iceland's largest ice cap. A model was used to simulate dust deposition on the glacier, and these periods of dust were compared to albedo measurements at two weather stations on Brúarjökull to evaluate the dust impact. We determine the influence of dust events on the snow albedo and the surface energy balance.
J. I. Peltoniemi, M. Gritsevich, T. Hakala, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Ó. Arnalds, K. Anttila, H.-R. Hannula, N. Kivekäs, H. Lihavainen, O. Meinander, J. Svensson, A. Virkkula, and G. de Leeuw
The Cryosphere, 9, 2323–2337,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities change the reflectance of snow in different ways. Some particles are heated by the Sun and they sink out of sight. During the process, snow may look darker than pure snow when observed by nadir, but at larger view zenith angles the snow may look as white as clean snow. Thus an observer on the ground may overestimate the albedo, while a satellite underestimates the albedo. Climate studies need to examine how the contaminants behave in snow, not only their total amounts.
P. Greenwood, M. Hoelzle, and N. J. Kuhn
Geogr. Helv., 70, 311–313,Short summary
Editorial introducing the special issue of Geographica Helvetica: Mapping, Measuring and Modeling in Geomorphology.
L. Xiao, Y. Hu, P. Greenwood, and N. J. Kuhn
Geogr. Helv., 70, 167–174,
P. Greenwood, S. Kuonen, W. Fister, and N. J. Kuhn
Geogr. Helv., 70, 63–73,Short summary
Alpine and mountain slopes represent important pathways that link high-altitude grazing areas to meadows and rangelands at lower elevations. Given the acute gradients associated with such environments, we hypothesize that terracettes act as efficient runoff conveyance routes that facilitate the movement of runoff and associated material during erosion events. This hypothesis was partially disproved during a series of rainfall/runoff simulations on a well-developed terracette system, however.
P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, O. Arnalds, and H. Olafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13411–13422,Short summary
Iceland is an active dust source in the high-latitude cold region. Dust day frequency in Iceland is comparable to dust studies from the active parts of China, Mongolia, and Iran. About 50% of annual dust events in the southern part of Iceland take place at sub-zero temperatures or in winter, when dust may be mixed with snow. The Arctic dust events (NE Iceland) are warm, occurring during summer/autumn while the sub-Arctic dust events (S Iceland) are mainly cold, occurring during winter/spring.
O. Arnalds, H. Olafsson, and P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova
Biogeosciences, 11, 6623–6632,Short summary
Iceland is one of the largest dust sources on Earth. Based on two separate methods, we estimate dust emissions to range between 30 and 40 million tons annually. Ocean deposition ranges between 5.5 and 13.8 million tons. Calculated iron deposition in oceans around Iceland ranges between 0.56 to 1.4 million tons, which are distributed over wide areas. Iron is a limiting nutrient for primary production in these waters, and dust is likely to affect oceanic Fe levels around Iceland.
Y. Hu and N. J. Kuhn
Biogeosciences, 11, 6209–6219,
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M. J. Riding, F. L. Martin, K. C. Jones, and K. T. Semple
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Afforestation on severely degraded volcanic soils/landscapes is an important process concerning ecological restoration in Iceland. These landscapes have a high potential to act as carbon sinks. We tested the soil (0–30 cm) of different stages of afforested (mountain birch) landscapes and analysed the quantity and quality of the soil organic carbon. There is an increase in the total SOC stock during the encroachment. The increase is mostly because of POM SOC. Such soils demand SOC quality tests.
Afforestation on severely degraded volcanic soils/landscapes is an important process concerning...