Articles | Volume 5, issue 2
Original research article 03 Sep 2019
Original research article | 03 Sep 2019
Arable soil formation and erosion: a hillslope-based cosmogenic nuclide study in the United Kingdom
Daniel L. Evans et al.
No articles found.
Roisin O'Riordan, Jess Davies, Carly Stevens, and John N. Quinton
SOIL, 7, 661–675,Short summary
As urban populations grow, soil sealing with impermeable surfaces will increase. At present there is limited knowledge on the effect of sealing on soil carbon and nutrients. We found that, in general, sealing reduced soil carbon and nutrients; however, where there were additions due to human activity, soil carbon and nutrients were increased. This suggests that there is a legacy soil carbon store in areas with an industrial past and highlights the influence of artefacts in urban soil.
Christopher R. Taylor, Victoria Janes-Bassett, Gareth K. Phoenix, Ben Keane, Iain P. Hartley, and Jessica A. C. Davies
Biogeosciences, 18, 4021–4037,Short summary
We used experimental data to model two phosphorus-limited grasslands and investigated their response to nitrogen (N) deposition. Greater uptake of organic P facilitated a positive response to N deposition, stimulating growth and soil carbon storage. Where organic P access was less, N deposition exacerbated P demand and reduced plant C input to the soil. This caused more C to be released into the atmosphere than is taken in, reducing the climate-mitigation capacity of the modelled grassland.
Jaqueline Stenfert Kroese, John N. Quinton, Suzanne R. Jacobs, Lutz Breuer, and Mariana C. Rufino
SOIL, 7, 53–70,Short summary
Particulate macronutrient concentrations were up to 3-fold higher in a natural forest catchment compared to fertilized agricultural catchments. Although the particulate macronutrient concentrations were lower in the smallholder agriculture catchment, because of higher sediment loads from that catchment, the total particulate macronutrient loads were higher. Land management practices should be focused on agricultural land to reduce the loss of soil carbon and nutrients to the stream.
Boris Gailleton, Simon M. Mudd, Fiona J. Clubb, Daniel Peifer, and Martin D. Hurst
Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 211–230,Short summary
The shape of landscapes is influenced by climate changes, faulting or the nature of the rocks under the surface. One of the most sensitive parts of the landscape to these changes is the river system that eventually adapts to such changes by adapting its slope, the most extreme example being a waterfall. We here present an algorithm that extracts changes in river slope over large areas from satellite data with the aim of investigating climatic, tectonic or geologic changes in the landscape.
Alexandru T. Codilean, Henry Munack, Timothy J. Cohen, Wanchese M. Saktura, Andrew Gray, and Simon M. Mudd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2123–2139,Short summary
OCTOPUS is a database of cosmogenic radionuclide and luminescence measurements in fluvial sediment made available to the research community via an Open Geospatial Consortium compliant web service. OCTOPUS and its associated data curation framework provide the opportunity for researchers to reuse previously published but otherwise unusable CRN and luminescence data. This delivers the potential to harness old but valuable data that would otherwise be lost to the research community.
Simon M. Mudd, Fiona J. Clubb, Boris Gailleton, and Martin D. Hurst
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 505–523,Short summary
Rivers can reveal information about erosion rates, tectonics, and climate. In order to make meaningful inferences about these influences, one must be able to compare headwaters to downstream parts of the river network. We describe new methods for normalizing river steepness for drainage area to better understand how rivers record erosion rates in eroding landscapes.
Guillaume C. H. Goodwin, Simon M. Mudd, and Fiona J. Clubb
Earth Surf. Dynam., 6, 239–255,Short summary
Salt marshes are valuable environments that provide multiple services to coastal communities. However, their fast-paced evolution poses a challenge to monitoring campaigns due to time-consuming processing. The Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP) method uses high-resolution topographic data to automatically detect the limits of salt marsh platforms within a landscape. The TIP method provides sufficient accuracy to monitor salt marsh change over time, facilitating coastal management.
Fiona J. Clubb, Simon M. Mudd, David T. Milodowski, Declan A. Valters, Louise J. Slater, Martin D. Hurst, and Ajay B. Limaye
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 369–385,Short summary
Floodplains and fluvial terraces can provide information about current and past river systems, helping to reveal how channels respond to changes in both climate and tectonics. We present a new method of identifying these features objectively from digital elevation models by analysing their slope and elevation compared to the modern river. We test our method in eight field sites, and find that it provides rapid and reliable extraction of floodplains and terraces across a range of landscapes.
Simon Marius Mudd, Marie-Alice Harel, Martin D. Hurst, Stuart W. D. Grieve, and Shasta M. Marrero
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 655–674,Short summary
Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations are widely used to calculate catchment-averaged denudation rates. Despite their widespread use, there is currently no open source method for calculating such rates, and the methods used to calculate catchment-averaged denudation rates vary widely between studies. Here we present an automated, open-source method for calculating basin averaged denudation rates, which may be used as a stand-alone calculator or as a front end to popular online calculators.
Stuart W. D. Grieve, Simon M. Mudd, David T. Milodowski, Fiona J. Clubb, and David J. Furbish
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 627–653,Short summary
High-resolution topographic data are becoming more prevalent, yet many areas of geomorphic interest do not have such data available. We produce topographic data at a range of resolutions to explore the influence of decreasing resolution of data on geomorphic analysis. We test the accuracy of the calculation of curvature, a hillslope sediment transport coefficient, and the identification of channel networks, providing guidelines for future use of these methods on low-resolution topographic data.
Stuart W. D. Grieve, Simon M. Mudd, Martin D. Hurst, and David T. Milodowski
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 309–325,Short summary
Relationships between the erosion rate and topographic relief of hillslopes have been demonstrated in a number of diverse settings and such patterns can be used to identify the impact of tectonic plate motion on the Earth's surface. Here we present an open-source software tool which can be used to explore these relationships in any landscape where high-resolution topographic data have been collected.
Saskia D. Keesstra, Johan Bouma, Jakob Wallinga, Pablo Tittonell, Pete Smith, Artemi Cerdà, Luca Montanarella, John N. Quinton, Yakov Pachepsky, Wim H. van der Putten, Richard D. Bardgett, Simon Moolenaar, Gerben Mol, Boris Jansen, and Louise O. Fresco
SOIL, 2, 111–128,Short summary
Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has links to several of the UN Sustainable Development Goals which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and related ecosystem services. We discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally and externally in terms of our relations with colleagues in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the set of steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole.
D. T. Milodowski, S. M. Mudd, and E. T. A. Mitchard
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 483–499,Short summary
Rock is exposed at the Earth surface when erosion rates locally exceed rates of soil production. This transition is marked by a diagnostic increase in topographic roughness, which we demonstrate can be a powerful indicator of the location of rock outcrop in a landscape. Using this to explore how hillslopes in two landscapes respond to increasing erosion rates, we find that the transition from soil-mantled to bedrock hillslopes is patchy and spatially heterogeneous.
A. Ola, I. C. Dodd, and J. N. Quinton
SOIL, 1, 603–612,Short summary
Plant roots are crucial in soil erosion control. Moreover, some species respond to nutrient-rich patches by lateral root proliferation. At the soil surface dense mats of roots may block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff; whereas at depth local increases in shear strength may reinforce soils at the shear plane. This review considers the potential of manipulating plant roots to control erosion.
M. Attal, S. M. Mudd, M. D. Hurst, B. Weinman, K. Yoo, and M. Naylor
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 201–222,Short summary
Steeper landscapes tend to erode faster. In this study, we also find that sediment produced on steeper landscapes is coarser. Soils are coarser because fragments spend less time in the soil so are less exposed to processes that can break them down. Change in sediment sources impact the sediment transported by rivers: rivers transport sediment up to cobble size in low-slope, soil-mantled areas; they transport much coarser sediment (including boulders supplied from landslides) in the steep areas.
E. C. Brevik, A. Cerdà, J. Mataix-Solera, L. Pereg, J. N. Quinton, J. Six, and K. Van Oost
SOIL, 1, 117–129,Short summary
This paper provides a brief accounting of some of the many ways that the study of soils can be interdisciplinary, therefore giving examples of the types of papers we hope to see submitted to SOIL.
Related subject area
Soil as a resourceLong-term field experiments in Germany: classification and spatial representationAdsorption to soils and biochemical characterization of commercial phytasesDevelopment of a harmonised soil profile analytical database for Europe: a resource for supporting regional soil managementAssessment and quantification of marginal lands for biomass production in Europe using soil-quality indicatorsPhysical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes of a representative group of soils from the eastern Amazon region in BrazilUncertainty indication in soil function maps – transparent and easy-to-use information to support sustainable use of soil resourcesA systemic approach for modeling soil functionsSoil conservation in the 21st century: why we need smart agricultural intensificationWorld's soils are under threatGlobal distribution of soil organic carbon – Part 1: Masses and frequency distributions of SOC stocks for the tropics, permafrost regions, wetlands, and the world
Meike Grosse, Wilfried Hierold, Marlen C. Ahlborn, Hans-Peter Piepho, and Katharina Helming
SOIL, 6, 579–596,Short summary
Agricultural long-term field experiments (LTFEs) are an important basis for soil and agricultural sciences. A compilation of metadata and research data from LTFEs in Germany shall enhance networking and simplify the access to this most valuable research infrastructure. The common analyses of similar LTFEs on different sites can broaden the results. Therefore, LTFEs were classified and their distribution in Germany was compared to three site classifications.
María Marta Caffaro, Karina Beatriz Balestrasse, and Gerardo Rubio
SOIL, 6, 153–162,Short summary
Four commercial phytases were evaluated as candidates to be used as biological fertilizer to release inorganic phosphorus (P) from phytates and other soil P organic forms. All phytases were able to release inorganic P throughout the pH and temperature ranges for optimum crop production and had a low affinity for the solid phase, with some differences between them. These results indicate that the use of phytases to complement P fertilization may be a feasible tool to enhance soil P availability.
Jeppe Aagaard Kristensen, Thomas Balstrøm, Robert J. A. Jones, Arwyn Jones, Luca Montanarella, Panos Panagos, and Henrik Breuning-Madsen
SOIL, 5, 289–301,Short summary
In a world of increasing pressure on our environment, large-scale knowledge about our soil resources is in high demand. We show how five decades of collaboration between EU member states resulted in a full-coverage soil profile analytical database for Europe (SPADE), with soil data provided by soil experts from each country. We show how the dataset can be applied to estimate soil organic carbon in Europe and suggest further improvement to this critical support tool in continental-scale policies.
Werner Gerwin, Frank Repmann, Spyridon Galatsidas, Despoina Vlachaki, Nikos Gounaris, Wibke Baumgarten, Christiane Volkmann, Dimitrios Keramitzis, Fotis Kiourtsis, and Dirk Freese
SOIL, 4, 267–290,Short summary
The need for biomass for energetic or material use is increasing parallel to the need to extend the production of food for a growing world population. This results in conflicts between both land use strategies. Use of marginal lands could solve this conflict, however, the understanding of marginal lands and the knowledge of their potentials are still not fully developed. We present an approach to assess land marginality based on soil quality and an estimation of land potentials all over Europe.
Edna Santos de Souza, Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes, Anderson Martins De Souza Braz, Fábio Júnior de Oliveira, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni, and Milton César Costa Campos
SOIL, 4, 195–212,Short summary
The study refers to a survey of the attributes of the main soil classes of the state of Pará, an eastern Amazon region in Brazil. These soils have good potential for agricultural use under natural conditions. In this study we observed that the soils are predominantly kaolinitic, but have relatively low aluminum and organic matter contents, with huge textural variability. The results enable a better understanding of eastern Amazonian soils, whose area reaches more than 1.2 million km2.
Lucie Greiner, Madlene Nussbaum, Andreas Papritz, Stephan Zimmermann, Andreas Gubler, Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, and Armin Keller
SOIL, 4, 123–139,Short summary
To maintain the soil resource, spatial information on soil multi-functionality is key. Soil function (SF) maps rate soils potentials to fulfill a certain function, e.g., nutrient regulation. We show how uncertainties in predictions of soil properties generated by digital soil mapping propagate into soil function maps, present possibilities to display this uncertainty information and show that otherwise comparable SF assessment methods differ in their behaviour in view of uncertainty propagation.
Hans-Jörg Vogel, Stephan Bartke, Katrin Daedlow, Katharina Helming, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Birgit Lang, Eva Rabot, David Russell, Bastian Stößel, Ulrich Weller, Martin Wiesmeier, and Ute Wollschläger
SOIL, 4, 83–92,Short summary
This paper deals with the importance of soil for our terrestrial environment and the need to predict the impact of soil management on the multitude of functions that soil provides. We suggest to consider soil as a self-organized complex system and provide a concept of how this could be achieved. This includes how soil research, currently fragmented into a number of more or less disjunct disciplines, may be integrated to substantially contribute to a science-based evaluation of soil functions.
Gerard Govers, Roel Merckx, Bas van Wesemael, and Kristof Van Oost
SOIL, 3, 45–59,Short summary
We discuss pathways towards better soil protection in the 21st century. The efficacy of soil conservation technology is not a fundamental barrier for a more sustainable soil management. However, soil conservation is generally not directly beneficial to the farmer. We believe that the solution of this conundrum is a rapid, smart intensification of agriculture in the Global South. This will reduce the financial burden and will, at the same time, allow more effective conservation.
Luca Montanarella, Daniel Jon Pennock, Neil McKenzie, Mohamed Badraoui, Victor Chude, Isaurinda Baptista, Tekalign Mamo, Martin Yemefack, Mikha Singh Aulakh, Kazuyuki Yagi, Suk Young Hong, Pisoot Vijarnsorn, Gan-Lin Zhang, Dominique Arrouays, Helaina Black, Pavel Krasilnikov, Jaroslava Sobocká, Julio Alegre, Carlos Roberto Henriquez, Maria de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Miguel Taboada, David Espinosa-Victoria, Abdullah AlShankiti, Sayed Kazem AlaviPanah, Elsiddig Ahmed El Mustafa Elsheikh, Jon Hempel, Marta Camps Arbestain, Freddy Nachtergaele, and Ronald Vargas
SOIL, 2, 79–82,Short summary
The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. The gravest threats were identified for all the regions of the world. This assessment forms a basis for future soil monitoring. The quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved.
M. Köchy, R. Hiederer, and A. Freibauer
SOIL, 1, 351–365,Short summary
Soils contain 1062Pg organic C (SOC) in 0-1m depth based on the adjusted Harmonized World Soil Database. Different estimates of bulk density of Histosols cause an uncertainty in the range of -56/+180Pg. We also report the frequency distribution of SOC stocks by continent, wetland type, and permafrost type. Using additional estimates for frozen and deeper soils, global soils are estimated to contain 1325Pg SOC in 0-1m and ca. 3000Pg, including deeper layers.
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Policy to conserve thinning arable soils relies on a balance between the rates of soil erosion and soil formation. Our knowledge of the latter is meagre. Here, we present soil formation rates for an arable hillslope, the first of their kind globally, and a woodland hillslope, the first of their kind in Europe. Rates range between 26 and 96 mm kyr−1. On the arable site, erosion rates are 2 orders of magnitude greater, and in a worst-case scenario, bedrock exposure could occur in 212 years.
Policy to conserve thinning arable soils relies on a balance between the rates of soil erosion...