Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2021-49
https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-2021-49
18 Jun 2021
 | 18 Jun 2021
Status: this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors.

Effects of application of biochar and straw on sustainable phosphorus management

Xue Li, Na Li, Jinfeng Yang, Yansen Xiang, Xin Wang, and Xiaori Han

Abstract. Excessive use of phosphorus (P) in farmland soil and improper disposal of crop residues such as straws accelerate the consumption of P resources and cause a high level of air and water pollution, which are the main limiting factors for sustainable agricultural development. The most important alternative is the introduction of organic fertilizers to replace mineral P fertilizer. However, the type of organic fertilizers and management methods differ significantly. In this study, we used solution 31-P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and Hedley fractionation method to characterize the P compounds in the initial soil (in 2013; CK0), long-term unfertilized (CK) soil, and the soils treated with N+P+K mineral fertilizer (NPK), biochar in combination with NPK fertilizer (CNPK), and corn straw in combination with NPK fertilizer (SNPK). The results showed that adding biochar significantly increased the concentration of P. However, Olsen-P was found to be the highest (21.88 mg kg−1) in SNPK. The concentration of Hedley-P was the highest (574.76 mg kg−1) in CNPK. The inorganic P forms were significantly increased by adding biochar (up to 183.9 %). The concentration of orthophosphate is positively relative to Resin-P, NaHCO3-inorganic P (Pi; organic P (Po)), NaOH-Po, and Residual-P, which are absorbed and utilized to plants and microorganisms. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) are potential sources of P. Compared to the direct application of straw, adding biochar increases the available P in the different soil and reduces environmental pollution.

This preprint has been withdrawn.

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Xue Li, Na Li, Jinfeng Yang, Yansen Xiang, Xin Wang, and Xiaori Han

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on soil-2021-49', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 Jul 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', na li, 24 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on soil-2021-49', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Jul 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', na li, 24 Jul 2021

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on soil-2021-49', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 Jul 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', na li, 24 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on soil-2021-49', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Jul 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', na li, 24 Jul 2021
Xue Li, Na Li, Jinfeng Yang, Yansen Xiang, Xin Wang, and Xiaori Han
Xue Li, Na Li, Jinfeng Yang, Yansen Xiang, Xin Wang, and Xiaori Han

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Short summary
The application of biochar in soil not only solves the problem of resource waste and environmental pollution caused by agricultural and forestry wastes but also improves the soil environment. In this study, the basic properties of the soil, P fractions, change in P forms, the relationship between Hedley-P, and distribution of different P forms in the soil were studied.